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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Automatic dependent surveillance—broadcast (ADSB).
A device used in aircraft that repeatedly broadcasts a
message that includes position (such as latitude, longitude,
and altitude), velocity, and possibly other information.

Automatic direction finder (ADF). Electronic navigation
equipment that operates in the low- and medium-frequency
bands. Used in conjunction with the ground-based
nondirectional beacon (NDB), the instrument displays the
number of degrees clockwise from the nose of the aircraft
to the station being received.

Automatic terminal information service (ATIS). The
continuous broadcast of recorded non-control information in
selected terminal areas. Its purpose is to improve controller
effectiveness and relieve frequency congestion by automating
repetitive transmission of essential but routine information.

Autopilot. An automatic flight control system which keeps
an aircraft in level flight or on a set course. Automatic pilots
can be directed by the pilot, or they may be coupled to a
radio navigation signal.

Aviation medical examiner (AME). A physician with
training in aviation medicine designated by the Civil

Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI).

Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR). Observation
of current surface weather reported in a standard international

AWOS. See Automated Weather Observing System.

Axes of an aircraft. Three imaginary lines that pass through
an aircraft's center of gravity. The axes can be considered
as imaginary axles around which the aircraft rotates. The
three axes pass through the center of gravity at 90° angles to
each other. The axis from nose to tail is the longitudinal axis
(pitch), the axis that passes from wingtip to wingtip is the
lateral axis (roll), and the axis that passes vertically through
the center of gravity is the vertical axis (yaw).

Axial flow compressor. A type of compressor used in a
turbine engine in which the airflow through the compressor
is essentially linear. An axial flow compressor is made up of
several stages of alternate rotors and stators. The compressor
ratio is determined by the decrease in area of the succeeding

Azimuth card. A card that may be set, gyroscopically
controlled, or driven by a remote compass.

Back course (BC). The reciprocal of the localizer course
for an ILS. When flying a back-course approach, an aircraft
approaches the instrument runway from the end at which the
localizer antennas are installed.

Balance tab. An auxiliary control mounted on a primary
control surface, which automatically moves in the direction
opposite the primary control to provide an aerodynamic
assist in the movement of the control. Sometimes referred
to as a servo tab.

Baro-aiding. A method of augmenting the GPS integrity
solution by using a nonsatellite input source. To ensure that
baro-aiding is available, the current altimeter setting must
be entered as described in the operating manual.

Barometric scale. A scale on the dial of an altimeter to which
the pilot sets the barometric pressure level from which the
altitude shown by the pointers is measured.

Basic empty weight (GAMA). Basic empty weight
includes the standard empty weight plus optional and special
equipment that has been installed.

BC. See back course.

Bernoulli's Principle. A principle that explains how the
pressure of a moving fluid varies with its speed of motion.
An increase in the speed of movement causes a decrease in
the fluid's pressure.

Biplanes. Airplanes with two sets of wings.

Block altitude. A block of altitudes assigned by ATC to
allow altitude deviations; for example, "Maintain block
altitude 9 to 11 thousand."

Bypass ratio. The ratio of the mass airflow in pounds per
second through the fan section of a turbofan engine to the
mass airflow that passes through the gas generator portion
of the engine.

Cabin altitude. Cabin pressure in terms of equivalent altitude
above sea level.

Cage. The black markings on the ball instrument indicating
its neutral position.

Calibrated. The instrument indication compared with a
standard value to determine the accuracy of the instrument.