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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Anhedral. A downward slant from root to tip of an aircraft's
wing or horizontal tail surface.

Annual inspection. A complete inspection of an aircraft and
engine, required by the Code of Federal Regulations, to be
accomplished every 12 calendar months on all certificated
aircraft. Only an A&P technician holding an Inspection
Authorization can conduct an annual inspection.

Anti-ice. Preventing the accumulation of ice on an aircraft
structure via a system designed for that purpose.

Antiservo tab. An adjustable tab attached to the trailing edge
of a stabilator that moves in the same direction as the primary
control. It is used to make the stabilator less sensitive.

Approach lighting system (ALS). Provides lights that will
penetrate the atmosphere far enough from touchdown to
give directional, distance, and glidepath information for safe
transition from instrument to visual flight

Area chart. Part of the low-altitude en route chart series,
this chart furnishes terminal data at a larger scale for
congested areas.

Area forecast (FA). A report that gives a picture of clouds,
general weather conditions, and visual meteorological
conditions (VMC) expected over a large area encompassing
several states.

Area navigation (RNAV). Allows a pilot to fly a selected
course to a predetermined point without the need to overfly
ground-based navigation facilities, by using waypoints.

Arm. See moment arm.

ARSR. See air route surveillance radar.

ARTCC. See air route traffic control center.

ASDE. See airport surface detection equipment.

ASOS. See Automated Surface Observing System.

Aspect ratio. Span of a wing divided by its average chord.

ASR. See airport surveillance radar.

Asymmetric thrust. Also known as P-factor. A tendency for
an aircraft to yaw to the left due to the descending propeller
blade on the right producing more thrust than the ascending
blade on the left. This occurs when the aircraft's longitudinal
axis is in a climbing attitude in relation to the relative wind.
The P-factor would be to the right if the aircraft had a
counterclockwise rotating propeller.

ATC. Air Traffic Control.

ATCRBS. See air traffic control radar beacon system.

ATIS. See automatic terminal information service.

Atmospheric propagation delay. A bending of the
electromagnetic (EM) wave from the satellite that creates
an error in the GPS system.

Attitude. A personal motivational predisposition to respond
to persons, situations, or events in a given manner that can,
nevertheless, be changed or modified through training as sort
of a mental shortcut to decision-making.

Attitude and heading reference system (AHRS). A system
composed of three-axis sensors that provide heading, attitude,
and yaw information for aircraft. AHRS are designed to
replace traditional mechanical gyroscopic flight instruments
and provide superior reliability and accuracy.

Attitude director indicator (ADI). An aircraft attitude
indicator that incorporates flight command bars to provide
pitch and roll commands.

Attitude indicator. The foundation for all instrument flight,
this instrument reflects the airplane's attitude in relation to
the horizon.

Attitude instrument flying. Controlling the aircraft by
reference to the instruments rather than by outside visual

Attitude management. The ability to recognize hazardous
attitudes in oneself and the willingness to modify them as
necessary through the application of an appropriate antidote

Autokinesis. Nighttime visual illusion that a stationary light
is moving, which becomes apparent after several seconds of
staring at the light.

Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS). Weather
reporting system which provides surface observations every
minute via digitized voice broadcasts and printed reports.

Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS).

Automated weather reporting system consisting of various
sensors, a processor, a computer-generated voice subsystem,
and a transmitter to broadcast weather data.