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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Weight. The force exerted by an aircraft from the pull of

Wide area augmentation system (WAAS). A differential
global positioning system (DGPS) that improves the accuracy
of the system by determining position error from the GPS
satellites, then transmitting the error, or corrective factors,
to the airborne GPS receiver.

Wind correction angle (WCA). The angle between the
desired track and the heading of the aircraft necessary to
keep the aircraft tracking over the desired track.
Wind direction indicators. Indicators that include a
wind sock, wind tee, or tetrahedron. Visual reference will
determine wind direction and runway in use.

Wind shear. A sudden, drastic shift in windspeed, direction,
or both that may occur in the horizontal or vertical plane.

Winds and temperature aloft forecast (FD). A twice daily
forecast that provides wind and temperature forecasts for
specific locations in the contiguous United States.

Wing area. The total surface of the wing (in square feet),
which includes control surfaces and may include wing area
covered by the fuselage (main body of the airplane), and
engine nacelles.

Wings. Airfoils attached to each side of the fuselage and are
the main lifting surfaces that support the airplane in flight
Wing span. The maximum distance from wingtip to

Wing span. The maximum distance from wingtip to

Wingtip vortices. The rapidly rotating air that spills over an
airplane's wings during flight The intensity of the turbulence
depends on the airplane's weight, speed, and configuration.
Also referred to as wake turbulence. Vortices from heavy
aircraft may be extremely hazardous to small aircraft.

Wing twist. A design feature incorporated into some wings
to improve aileron control effectiveness at high angles of
attack during an approach to a stall.

Work. A measurement of force used to produce movement.

World Aeronautical Charts (WAC). A standard series of
aeronautical charts covering land areas of the world at a
size and scale convenient for navigation (1:1,000,000) by
moderate speed aircraft. Topographic information includes
cities and towns, principal roads, railroads, distinctive
landmarks, drainage, and relief. Aeronautical information
includes visual and radio aids to navigation, airports, airways,
restricted areas, obstructions and other pertinent data.

Zone of confusion. Volume of space above the station where
a lack of adequate navigation signal directly above the VOR
station causes the needle to deviate.

Zulu time. A term used in aviation for coordinated universal
time (UTC) which places the entire world on one time