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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Turbine engine. An aircraft engine which consists of an
air compressor, a combustion section, and a turbine. Thrust
is produced by increasing the velocity of the air flowing
through the engine.

Turbocharger. An air compressor driven by exhaust gases,
which increases the pressure of the air going into the engine
through the carburetor or fuel injection system.

Turbofan engine. A fanlike turbojet engine designed to
create additional thrust by diverting a secondary airflow
around the combustion chamber.

Turbojet engine. A turbine engine which produces its thrust
entirely by accelerating the air through the engine.

Turboprop engine. A turbine engine which drives a
propeller through a reduction gearing arrangement. Most of
the energy in the exhaust gases is converted into torque, rather
than using its acceleration to drive the aircraft.

Turboshaft engine. A gas turbine engine that delivers power
through a shaft to operate something other than a propeller.

Turn-and-slip indicator. A flight instrument consisting
of a rate gyro to indicate the rate of yaw and a curved glass
inclinometer to indicate the relationship between gravity and
centrifugal force. The turn-and-slip indicator indicates the
relationship between angle of bank and rate of yaw. Also
called a turn-and-bank indicator.

Turn coordinator. A rate gyro that senses both roll and
yaw due to the gimbal being canted. Has largely replaced
the turn-and-slip indicator in modern aircraft.

TWEB. See Transcribed Weather Broadcast.

UHF. See ultra-high frequency.

Ultra-high frequency (UHF). The range of electromagnetic
frequencies between 962 MHz and 1213 MHz.

Ultimate load factor. In stress analysis, the load that causes
physical breakdown in an aircraft or aircraft component during
a strength test, or the load that according to computations,
should cause such a breakdown.

Uncaging. Unlocking the gimbals of a gyroscopic instrument,
making it susceptible to damage by abrupt flight maneuvers
or rough handling.

Uncontrolled airspace. Class G airspace that has not been
designated as Class A, B, C, D, or E. It is airspace in which
air traffic control has no authority or responsibility to control
air traffic; however, pilots should remember there are VFR
minimums which apply to this airspace.

Under power. Using less power than required for the purpose
of achieving a faster rate of airspeed change.

United States Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP).
Booklets published in regional format by the NACO that
include DPs, STARs, IAPs, and other information pertinent
to IFR flight

Unusual attitude. An unintentional, unanticipated, or
extreme aircraft attitude.

Useful load. The weight of the pilot, copilot, passengers,
baggage, usable fuel, and drainable oil. It is the basic empty
weight subtracted from the maximum allowable gross weight.
This term applies to general aviation aircraft only.

User-defined waypoints. Waypoint location and other data
which may be input by the user, this is the only GPS database
information that may be altered (edited) by the user.

V1. See takeoff decision speed.

V2. See takeoff safety speed.

VA. The design maneuvering speed. The maximum speed
at which full, abrupt control movement can be used without
overstressing the airframe.

Vapor lock. A problem that mostly affects gasoline-fuelled
internal combustion engines. It occurs when the liquid fuel
changes state from liquid to gas while still in the fuel delivery
system. This disrupts the operation of the fuel pump, causing
loss of feed pressure to the carburetor or fuel injection system,
resulting in transient loss of power or complete stalling.
Restarting the engine from this state may be difficult. The fuel
can vaporize due to being heated by the engine, by the local
climate or due to a lower boiling point at high altitude.

Variation. Compass error caused by the difference in
the physical locations of the magnetic north pole and the
geographic north pole.

VASI. See visual approach slope indicator.