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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Torquemeter. An instrument used with some of the larger
reciprocating engines and turboprop or turboshaft engines to
measure the reaction between the propeller reduction gears
and the engine case.

Total drag. The sum of the parasite drag and induced drag.

Touchdown zone elevation (TDZE). The highest elevation
in the first 3,000 feet of the landing surface, TDZE is
indicated on the instrument approach procedure chart when
straight-in landing minimums are authorized.

Touchdown zone lights. Two rows of transverse light bars
disposed symmetrically about the runway centerline in the
runway touchdown zone.

Tower En Route Control (TEC). The control of IFR en route
traffic within delegated airspace between two or more adjacent
approach control facilities, designed to expedite traffic and
reduce control and pilot communication requirements.

TPP. See United States Terminal Procedures Publication.

Track. The actual path made over the ground in flight.

Tracking. Flying a heading that will maintain the desired track
to or from the station regardless of crosswind conditions.

Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System (TCAS).
An airborne system developed by the FAA that operates
independently from the ground-based Air Traffic Control
system. Designed to increase flight deck awareness of
proximate aircraft and to serve as a "last line of defense" for
the prevention of midair collisions.

Traffic information service (TIS). A ground-based service
providing information to the flight deck via data link using
the S-mode transponder and altitude encoder to improve the
safety and efficiency of "see and avoid" flight through an
automatic display that informs the pilot of nearby traffic.

Trailing edge. The portion of the airfoil where the airflow
over the upper surface rejoins the lower surface airflow.

Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB). Meteorological
and aeronautical data recorded on tapes and broadcast over
selected NAVAIDs. Generally, the broadcast contains route oriented
data with specially prepared NWS forecasts, inflight
advisories, and winds aloft. It also includes selected current
information such as weather reports (METAR/SPECI),
NOTAMs, and special notices.

Transponder. The airborne portion of the ATC radar
beacon system.

Transponder code. One of 4,096 four-digit discrete codes
ATC assigns to distinguish between aircraft.

Trend. Immediate indication of the direction of aircraft
movement, as shown on instruments.

Tricycle gear. Landing gear employing a third wheel located
on the nose of the aircraft.

Trim. To adjust the aerodynamic forces on the control
surfaces so that the aircraft maintains the set attitude without
any control input.

Trim tab. A small auxiliary hinged portion of a movable
control surface that can be adjusted during flight. to a position
resulting in a balance of control forces.

Tropopause. The boundary layer between the troposphere
and the stratosphere which acts as a lid to confine most
of the water vapor, and the associated weather, to the

Troposphere. The layer of the atmosphere extending from
the surface to a height of 20,000 to 60,000 feet, depending
on latitude.

True airspeed. Actual airspeed, determined by applying a
correction for pressure altitude and temperature to the CAS.

True altitude. The vertical distance of the airplane above
sea level—the actual altitude. It is often expressed as feet
above mean sea level (MSL). Airport, terrain, and obstacle
elevations on aeronautical charts are true altitudes.

Truss. A fuselage design made up of supporting structural
members that resist deformation by applied loads. The truss type
fuselage is constructed of steel or aluminum tubing.
Strength and rigidity is achieved by welding the tubing
together into a series of triangular shapes, called trusses.

T-tail. An aircraft with the horizontal stabilizer mounted on
the top of the vertical stabilizer, forming a T.

Turbine discharge pressure. The total pressure at the
discharge of the low-pressure turbine in a dual-turbine axial flow