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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Technique. The manner in which procedures are executed.

Telephone information briefing service (TIBS).

Telephone recording of area and/or route meteorological
briefings, airspace procedures, and special aviation-oriented

Temporary flight restriction (TFR). Restriction to flight
imposed in order to:
1. Protect persons and property in the air or on the
surface from an existing or imminent flight associated
2. Provide a safe environment for the operation of
disaster relief aircraft;
3. Prevent an unsafe congestion of sightseeing aircraft
above an incident;
4. Protect the President, Vice President, or other public
figures; and,
5. Provide a safe environment for space agency
Pilots are expected to check appropriate NOTAMs during
flight planning when conducting flight in an area where a
temporary flight restriction is in effect.

Tension. Maintaining an excessively strong grip on the control
column, usually resulting in an overcontrolled situation.

Terminal aerodrome forecast (TAF). A report established
for the 5 statute mile radius around an airport. Utilizes the
same descriptors and abbreviations as the METAR report.

Terminal arrival area (TAA). A procedure to provide a
new transition method for arriving aircraft equipped with
FMS and/or GPS navigational equipment. The TAA contains
a "T" structure that normally provides a NoPT for aircraft
using the approach.

Terminal instrument approach procedure (TERP).
Prescribes standardized methods for use in designing
instrument flight procedures.

TERP. See terminal instrument approach procedure.

Terminal radar service areas (TRSA). Areas where
participating pilots can receive additional radar services. The
purpose of the service is to provide separation between all
IFR operations and participating VFR aircraft.

Terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS). A
timed-based system that provides information concerning
potential hazards with fixed objects by using GPS positioning
and a database of terrain and obstructions to provide true
predictability of the upcoming terrain and obstacles.

TFR. See temporary flight restriction.

Thermosphere. The last layer of the atmosphere that
begins above the mesosphere and gradually fades away into

Threshold crossing height (TCH). The theoretical height
above the runway threshold at which the aircraft's glideslope
antenna would be if the aircraft maintained the trajectory
established by the mean ILS glideslope or MLS glidepath.

Thrust. The force which imparts a change in the velocity of a
mass. This force is measured in pounds but has no element of
time or rate. The term "thrust required" is generally associated
with jet engines. A forward force which propels the airplane
through the air.

Thrust (aerodynamic force). The forward aerodynamic
force produced by a propeller, fan, or turbojet engine as it
forces a mass of air to the rear, behind the aircraft.

Thrust line. An imaginary line passing through the center of
the propeller hub, perpendicular to the plane of the propeller

Time and speed table. A table depicted on an instrument
approach procedure chart that identifies the distance from the
FAF to the MAP, and provides the time required to transit
that distance based on various groundspeeds.

Timed turn. A turn in which the clock and the turn
coordinator are used to change heading a definite number of
degrees in a given time.

TIS. See traffic information service.

Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).
Includes the federal aviation regulations governing the
operation of aircraft, airways, and airmen.

Torque. (1) A resistance to turning or twisting. (2) Forces that
produce a twisting or rotating motion. (3) In an airplane, the
tendency of the aircraft to turn (roll) in the opposite direction
of rotation of the engine and propeller. (4) In helicopters with
a single, main rotor system, the tendency of the helicopter to
turn in the opposite direction of the main rotor rotation.