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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Airspeed indicator. A differential pressure gauge that
measures the dynamic pressure of the air through which the
aircraft is flying. Displays the craft's airspeed, typically in
knots, to the pilot.

Air traffic control radar beacon system (ATCRBS).
Sometimes called secondary surveillance radar (SSR), which
utilizes a transponder in the aircraft. The ground equipment is
an interrogating unit, in which the beacon antenna is mounted
so it rotates with the surveillance antenna. The interrogating
unit transmits a coded pulse sequence that actuates the aircraft
transponder. The transponder answers the coded sequence by
transmitting a preselected coded sequence back to the ground
equipment, providing a strong return signal and positive
aircraft identification, as well as other special data.

Airway. An airway is based on a centerline that extends from
one navigation aid or intersection to another navigation aid
(or through several navigation aids or intersections); used
to establish a known route for en route procedures between
terminal areas.

Airworthiness Certificate. A certificate issued by the FAA
to all aircraft that have been proven to meet the minimum
standards set down by the Code of Federal Regulations.

Airworthiness Directive. A regulatory notice sent out by
the FAA to the registered owner of an aircraft informing the
owner of a condition that prevents the aircraft from continuing
to meet its conditions for airworthiness. Airworthiness
Directives (AD notes) are to be complied with within the
required time limit, and the fact of compliance, the date of
compliance, and the method of compliance are recorded in
the aircraft's maintenance records.

Alert area. An area in which there is a high volume of pilot
training or an unusual type of aeronautical activity.

Almanac data. Information the global positioning system
(GPS) receiver can obtain from one satellite which describes
the approximate orbital positioning of all satellites in the
constellation. This information is necessary for the GPS
receiver to know what satellites to look for in the sky at a
given time.

ALS. See approach lighting system.

Alternate airport. An airport designated in an IFR flight
plan, providing a suitable destination if a landing at the
intended airport becomes inadvisable.

Alternate static source valve. A valve in the instrument static
air system that supplies reference air pressure to the altimeter,
airspeed indicator, and vertical speed indicator if the normal
static pickup should become clogged or iced over.

Altimeter. A flight instrument that indicates altitude by
sensing pressure changes.

Altimeter setting. Station pressure (the barometric pressure
at the location the reading is taken) which has been corrected
for the height of the station above sea level.

Altitude engine. A reciprocating aircraft engine having a
rated takeoff power that is producible from sea level to an
established higher altitude.

Ambient pressure. The pressure in the area immediately
surrounding the aircraft.

Ambient temperature. The temperature in the area
immediately surrounding the aircraft.

AME. See aviation medical examiner.

Amendment status. The circulation date and revision
number of an instrument approach procedure, printed above
the procedure identification.

Ammeter. An instrument installed in series with an electrical
load used to measure the amount of current .owing through
the load.

Aneroid. The sensitive component in an altimeter or
barometer that measures the absolute pressure of the air.
It is a sealed, flat capsule made of thin disks of corrugated
metal soldered together and evacuated by pumping all of
the air out of it.

Aneroid barometer. An instrument that measures the
absolute pressure of the atmosphere by balancing the weight
of the air above it against the spring action of the aneroid.

Angle of attack. The acute angle formed between the
chord line of an airfoil and the direction of the air striking
the airfoil.

Angle of incidence. The angle formed by the chord line of
the wing and a line parallel to the longitudinal axis of the