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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Static pressure. Pressure of air that is still or not moving,
measured perpendicular to the surface of the aircraft.

Static stability. The initial tendency an aircraft displays
when disturbed from a state of equilibrium.

Station. A location in the airplane that is identified by a
number designating its distance in inches from the datum.
The datum is, therefore, identified as station zero. An item
located at station +50 would have an arm of 50 inches.

Stationary front. A front that is moving at a speed of less
than 5 knots.

Steep turns. In instrument flight, any turn greater than standard
rate; in visual flight, anything greater than a 45° bank.

Stepdown fix. The point after which additional descent is
permitted within a segment of an IAP.

Strapdown system. An INS in which the accelerometers
and gyros are permanently "strapped down" or aligned with
the three axes of the aircraft.

Stratosphere. A layer of the atmosphere above the tropopause
extending to a height of approximately 160,000 feet.

Stress. The body's response to demands placed upon it.

Stress management. The personal analysis of the kinds of
stress experienced while flying, the application of appropriate
stress assessment tools, and other coping mechanisms.

Structural icing. The accumulation of ice on the exterior
of the aircraft.

Sublimation. Process by which a solid is changed to a gas
without going through the liquid state.

Suction relief valve. A relief valve in an instrument vacuum
system required to maintain the correct low pressure inside
the instrument case for the proper operation of the gyros.

Supercharger. An engine- or exhaust-driven air compressor
used to provide additional pressure to the induction air so the
engine can produce additional power.

Supercooled water droplets. Water droplets that have
been cooled below the freezing point, but are still in a liquid

Surface analysis chart. A report that depicts an analysis of
the current surface weather. Shows the areas of high and low
pressure, fronts, temperatures, dewpoints, wind directions
and speeds, local weather, and visual obstructions.

Synchro. A device used to transmit indications of angular
movement or position from one location to another.

Synthetic vision. A realistic display depiction of the aircraft
in relation to terrain and flight path.

TAA. See terminal arrival area.

TACAN. See tactical air navigation.

Tactical air navigation (TACAN). An electronic navigation
system used by military aircraft, providing both distance and
direction information.

Takeoff decision speed (V1). Per 14 CFR section 23.51:
"the calibrated airspeed on the ground at which, as a result
of engine failure or other reasons, the pilot assumed to have
made a decision to continue or discontinue the takeoff."

Takeoff distance. The distance required to complete an
all-engines operative takeoff to the 35-foot height. It must
be at least 15 percent less than the distance required for a
one-engine inoperative engine takeoff. This distance is not
normally a limiting factor as it is usually less than the one engine
inoperative takeoff distance.

Takeoff safety speed (V2). Per 14 CFR part 1: "A referenced
airspeed obtained after lift-off at which the required one engine
inoperative climb performance can be achieved.

TAWS. See terrain awareness and warning system.

Taxiway lights. Omnidirectional lights that outline the edges
of the taxiway and are blue in color.

Taxiway turnoff lights. Lights that are flush with the runway
which emit a steady green color.

TCAS. See traffic alert collision avoidance system.

TCH. See threshold crossing height.

TDZE. See touchdown zone elevation.

TEC. See Tower En Route Control.