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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Special use airspace. Airspace in which flight activities are
subject to restrictions that can create limitations on the mixed
use of airspace. Consists of prohibited, restricted, warning,
military operations, and alert areas.

Special fuel consumption. The amount of fuel in pounds
per hour consumed or required by an engine per brake
horsepower or per pound of thrust.

Speed. The distance traveled in a given time.

Spin. An aggravated stall that results in an airplane
descending in a helical, or corkscrew path.

Spiral instability. A condition that exists when the
static directional stability of the airplane is very strong as
compared to the effect of its dihedral in maintaining lateral

Spiraling slipstream. The slipstream of a propeller-driven
airplane rotates around the airplane. This slipstream strikes
the left side of the vertical fin, causing the aircraft to yaw
slightly. Rudder offset is sometimes used by aircraft designers
to counteract this tendency.

Spoilers. High-drag devices that can be raised into the air
flowing over an airfoil, reducing lift and increasing drag.

Spoilers are used for roll control on some aircraft. Deploying
spoilers on both wings at the same time allows the aircraft
to descend without gaining speed. Spoilers are also used to
shorten the ground roll after landing.

SRM. See single-pilot resource management.

SSR. See secondary surveillance radar.

SSV. See standard service volume.

Stabilator. A single-piece horizontal tail surface on an
airplane that pivots around a central hinge point. A stabilator
serves the purposes of both the horizontal stabilizer and the

Stability. The inherent quality of an airplane to correct for
conditions that may disturb its equilibrium, and to return or to
continue on the original flightpath. It is primarily an airplane
design characteristic.

Stagnant hypoxia. A type of hypoxia that results when the
oxygen-rich blood in the lungs is not moving to the tissues
that need it.

Stall. A rapid decrease in lift caused by the separation of
airflow from the wing's surface, brought on by exceeding
the critical angle of attack. A stall can occur at any pitch
attitude or airspeed.

Standard atmosphere. At sea level, the standard atmosphere
consists of a barometric pressure of 29.92 inches of mercury
("Hg) or 1013.2 millibars, and a temperature of 15 °C (59
°F). Pressure and temperature normally decrease as altitude
increases. The standard lapse rate in the lower atmosphere for
each 1,000 feet of altitude is approximately 1 "Hg and 2 °C
(3.5 °F). For example, the standard pressure and temperature
at 3,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) are 26.92 "Hg (29.92 "Hg
– 3 "Hg) and 9 °C (15 °C – 6 °C).

Standard empty weight (GAMA). This weight consists of
the airframe, engines, and all items of operating equipment
that have fixed locations and are permanently installed in the
airplane including .xed ballast, hydraulic fluid, unusable
fuel, and full engine oil.

Standard holding pattern. A holding pattern in which all
turns are made to the right.

Standard instrument departure procedures (SIDS).
Published procedures to expedite clearance delivery and to
facilitate transition between takeoff and en route operations.

Standard rate turn. A turn in which an aircraft changes its
direction at a rate of 3° per second (360° in 2 minutes) for
low- or medium-speed aircraft. For high-speed aircraft, the
standard rate turn is 1½° per second (360° in 4 minutes).

Standard service volume (SSV). Defines the limits of the
volume of airspace which the VOR serves.

Standard terminal arrival route (STAR). A preplanned
IFR ATC arrival procedure published for pilot use in graphic
and/or textual form.

Standard weights. Weights established for numerous items
involved in weight and balance computations. These weights
should not be used if actual weights are available.

STAR. See standard terminal arrival route.

Static longitudinal stability. The aerodynamic pitching
moments required to return the aircraft to the equilibrium
angle of attack.