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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Semicircular canal. An inner ear organ that detects angular
acceleration of the body.

Semimonocoque. A fuselage design that includes a
substructure of bulkheads and/or formers, along with
stringers, to support flight loads and stresses imposed on
the fuselage.

Sensitive altimeter. A form of multipointer pneumatic
altimeter with an adjustable barometric scale that allows the
reference pressure to be set to any desired level.

Service ceiling. The maximum density altitude where the best
rate-of-climb airspeed will produce a 100-feet-per-minute
climb at maximum weight while in a clean configuration
with maximum continuous power.

Servo. A motor or other form of actuator which receives a
small signal from the control device and exerts a large force
to accomplish the desired work.

Servo tab. An auxiliary control mounted on a primary control
surface, which automatically moves in the direction opposite
the primary control to provide an aerodynamic assist in the
movement of the control.

SIDS. See standard instrument departure procedures.

SIGMET. The acronym for Significant Meteorological
information. A weather advisory issued concerning weather
significant to the safety of all aircraft.

Signal-to-noise ratio. An indication of signal strength
received compared to background noise, which is a measure
of the adequacy of the received signal.

Significant weather prognostic. Presents four panels
showing forecast significant weather.

Simplex. Transmission and reception on the same

Simplified directional facility (SDF). A NAVAID used
for nonprecision instrument approaches. The final approach
course is similar to that of an ILS localizer; however, the

SDF course may be offset from the runway, generally not
more than 3°, and the course may be wider than the localizer,
resulting in a lower degree of accuracy.

Single-pilot resource management (SRM). The ability
for a pilot to manage all resources effectively to ensure the
outcome of the flight is successful.

Situational awareness. Pilot knowledge of where the aircraft
is in regard to location, air traffic control, weather, regulations,
aircraft status, and other factors that may affect flight

Skidding turn. An uncoordinated turn in which the rate of
turn is too great for the angle of bank, pulling the aircraft to
the outside of the turn.

Skills and procedures. The procedural, psychomotor, and
perceptual skills used to control a specific aircraft or its
systems. They are the airmanship abilities that are gained
through conventional training, are perfected, and become
almost automatic through experience.

Skin friction drag. Drag generated between air molecules
and the solid surface of the aircraft.

Slant range. The horizontal distance from the aircraft antenna
to the ground station, due to line-of-sight transmission of the
DME signal.

Slaved compass. A system whereby the heading gyro is
"slaved to," or continuously corrected to bring its direction
readings into agreement with a remotely located magnetic
direction sensing device (usually a flux valve or flux gate

Slipping turn. An uncoordinated turn in which the aircraft
is banked too much for the rate of turn, so the horizontal lift
component is greater than the centrifugal force, pulling the
aircraft toward the inside of the turn.

Small airplane. An airplane of 12,500 pounds or less
maximum certi.cated takeoff weight.

Somatogravic illusion. The misperception of being
in a nose-up or nose-down attitude, caused by a rapid
acceleration or deceleration while in flight situations that
lack visual reference.

Spatial disorientation. The state of confusion due to
misleading information being sent to the brain from various
sensory organs, resulting in a lack of awareness of the aircraft
position in relation to a specific reference point.

Special flight permit. A flight permit issued to an aircraft
that does not meet airworthiness requirements but is capable
of safe flight A special flight permit can be issued to move
an aircraft for the purposes of maintenance or repair, buyer
delivery, manufacturer flight tests, evacuation from danger,
or customer demonstration. Also referred to as a ferry