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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Random RNAV routes. Direct routes, based on area
navigation capability, between waypoints defined in terms
of latitude/longitude coordinates, degree-distance .xes, or
offsets from established routes/airways at a specified distance
and direction.

Ranging signals. Transmitted from the GPS satellite, signals
allowing the aircraft's receiver to determine range (distance)
from each satellite.

Rapid decompression. The almost instantaneous loss of
cabin pressure in aircraft with a pressurized cockpit or

RB. See relative bearing.

RBI. See relative bearing indicator.

RCO. See remote communications outlet.

Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM).
A system used to verify the usability of the received GPS
signals and warns the pilot of any malfunction in the
navigation system. This system is required for IFR-certified
GPS units.

Recommended altitude. An altitude depicted on an
instrument approach chart with the altitude value neither
underscored nor overscored. The depicted value is an
advisory value.

Receiver-transmitter (RT). A system that receives and
transmits a signal and an indicator.

Reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM). Reduces
the vertical separation between flight levels (FL) 290 and 410
from 2,000 feet to 1,000 feet, and makes six additional FLs
available for operation. Also see DRVSM.

Reference circle (also, distance circle). The circle depicted
in the plan view of an IAP chart that typically has a 10 NM
radius, within which chart the elements are drawn to scale.

Regions of command. The "regions of normal and reversed
command" refers to the relationship between speed and the
power required to maintain or change that speed in flight.

Region of reverse command. Flight regime in which flight
at a higher airspeed requires a lower power setting and a
lower airspeed requires a higher power setting in order to
maintain altitude.

REIL. See runway end identifier lights.

Relative bearing (RB). The angular difference between the
aircraft heading and the direction to the station, measured
clockwise from the nose of the aircraft.

Relative bearing indicator (RBI). Also known as the fixed card
ADF, zero is always indicated at the top of the instrument
and the needle indicates the relative bearing to the station.

Relative humidity. The ratio of the existing amount of
water vapor in the air at a given temperature to the maximum
amount that could exist at that temperature; usually expressed
in percent.

Relative wind. Direction of the airflow produced by an object
moving through the air. The relative wind for an airplane in
flight. flows in a direction parallel with and opposite to the
direction of flight.; therefore, the actual flight. path of the
airplane determines the direction of the relative wind.

Remote communications outlet (RCO). An unmanned
communications facility that is remotely controlled by air
traffic personnel.

Required navigation performance (RNP). A specified level
of accuracy defined by a lateral area of confined airspace in
which an RNP-certified aircraft operates.

Restricted area. Airspace designated under 14 CFR part
73 within which the flight. of aircraft, while not wholly
prohibited, is subject to restriction.

Reverse sensing. The VOR needle appearing to indicate the
reverse of normal operation.

RF. Radio frequency.

Rhodopsin. The photosensitive pigments that initiate the
visual response in the rods of the eye.

Rigging. The final adjustment and alignment of an aircraft
and its flight control system that provides the proper
aerodynamic characteristics.

Rigidity. The characteristic of a gyroscope that prevents its
axis of rotation tilting as the Earth rotates.

Rigidity in space. The principle that a wheel with a heavily
weighted rim spinning rapidly will remain in a .xed position
in the plane in which it is spinning.