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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Occluded front. A frontal occlusion occurs when a fast moving
cold front catches up with a slow moving warm front.
The difference in temperature within each frontal system is
a major factor in determining whether a cold or warm front
occlusion occurs.

ODP. See obstacle departure procedures.

OM. Outer marker.

Omission error. The failure to anticipate significant
instrument indications following attitude changes; for
example, concentrating on pitch control while forgetting
about heading or roll information, resulting in erratic control
of heading and bank.

Optical illusion. A misleading visual image. For the
purpose of this handbook, the term refers to the brain's
misinterpretation of features on the ground associated
with landing, which causes a pilot to misread the spatial
relationships between the aircraft and the runway.

Orientation. Awareness of the position of the aircraft and
of oneself in relation to a specific reference point.

Otolith organ. An inner ear organ that detects linear
acceleration and gravity orientation.

Outer marker. A marker beacon at or near the glideslope
intercept altitude of an ILS approach. It is normally located
four to seven miles from the runway threshold on the
extended centerline of the runway.

Outside air temperature (OAT). The measured or indicated
air temperature (IAT) corrected for compression and friction
heating. Also referred to as true air temperature.

Overcontrolling. Using more movement in the control
column than is necessary to achieve the desired pitch-and bank

Overboost. A condition in which a reciprocating engine has
exceeded the maximum manifold pressure allowed by the
manufacturer. Can cause damage to engine components.

Overpower. To use more power than required for the purpose
of achieving a faster rate of airspeed change.

P-static. See precipitation static.

PAPI. See precision approach path indicator.

PAR. See precision approach radar.

Parasite drag. Drag caused by the friction of air moving
over the aircraft structure; its amount varies directly with
the airspeed.

Payload (GAMA). The weight of occupants, cargo, and

Personality. The embodiment of personal traits and
characteristics of an individual that are set at a very early
age and extremely resistant to change.

P-factor. A tendency for an aircraft to yaw to the left due to
the descending propeller blade on the right producing more
thrust than the ascending blade on the left. This occurs when
the aircraft's longitudinal axis is in a climbing attitude in
relation to the relative wind. The P-factor would be to the right
if the aircraft had a counterclockwise rotating propeller.

PFD. See primary flight display.

Phugoid oscillations. Long-period oscillations of an
aircraft around its lateral axis. It is a slow change in pitch
accompanied by equally slow changes in airspeed. Angle
of attack remains constant, and the pilot often corrects for
phugoid oscillations without even being aware of them.

PIC. See pilot in command.

Pilotage. Navigation by visual reference to landmarks.

Pilot in command (PIC). The pilot responsible for the
operation and safety of an aircraft.

Pilot report (PIREP). Report of meteorological phenomena
encountered by aircraft.

Pilot's Operating Handbook/Airplane Flight Manual
(POH/AFM). FAA-approved documents published by the
airframe manufacturer that list the operating conditions for
a particular model of aircraft.

PIREP. See pilot report.

Pitot pressure. Ram air pressure used to measure airspeed.

Pitot-static head. A combination pickup used to sample pitot
pressure and static air pressure.

Plan view. The overhead view of an approach procedure on
an instrument approach chart. The plan view depicts the routes
that guide the pilot from the en route segments to the IAF.