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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Minimum descent altitude (MDA). The lowest altitude (in
feet MSL) to which descent is authorized on final approach,
or during circle-to-land maneuvering in execution of a
nonprecision approach.

Minimum drag. The point on the total drag curve where
the lift-to-drag ratio is the greatest. At this speed, total drag
is minimized.

Minimum en route altitude (MEA). The lowest published
altitude between radio fixes that ensures acceptable
navigational signal coverage and meets obstacle clearance
requirements between those .xes.

Minimum equipment list (MEL). A list developed for larger
aircraft that outlines equipment that can be inoperative for
various types of flight including IFR and icing conditions. This
list is based on the master minimum equipment list (MMEL)
developed by the FAA and must be approved by the FAA for
use. It is specific to an individual aircraft make and model.

Minimum obstruction clearance altitude (MOCA). The
lowest published altitude in effect between radio fixes on VOR
airways, off-airway routes, or route segments, which meets
obstacle clearance requirements for the entire route segment
and which ensures acceptable navigational signal coverage
only within 25 statute (22 nautical) miles of a VOR.

Minimum reception altitude (MRA). The lowest altitude
at which an airway intersection can be determined.

Minimum safe altitude (MSA). The minimum altitude
depicted on approach charts which provides at least 1,000 feet
of obstacle clearance for emergency use within a specified
distance from the listed navigation facility.

Minimum vectoring altitude (MVA). An IFR altitude lower
than the minimum en route altitude (MEA) that provides
terrain and obstacle clearance.

Minimums section. The area on an IAP chart that displays the
lowest altitude and visibility requirements for the approach.

Missed approach. A maneuver conducted by a pilot when an
instrument approach cannot be completed to a landing.

Missed approach point (MAP). A point prescribed in each
instrument approach at which a missed approach procedure
shall be executed if the required visual reference has not
been established.

Mixed ice. A mixture of clear ice and rime ice.

MLS. See microwave landing system.

MM. Middle marker.

MOA. See military operations area.

MOCA. See minimum obstruction clearance altitude.

Mode C. Altitude reporting transponder mode.

Moment. The product of the weight of an item multiplied
by its arm. Moments are expressed in pound-inches (lb-in).
Total moment is the weight of the airplane multiplied by the
distance between the datum and the CG.

Moment arm. The distance from a datum to the applied

Moment index (or index). A moment divided by a constant
such as 100, 1,000, or 10,000. The purpose of using a moment
index is to simplify weight and balance computations of
airplanes where heavy items and long arms result in large,
unmanageable numbers.

Monocoque. A shell-like fuselage design in which the
stressed outer skin is used to support the majority of imposed
stresses. Monocoque fuselage design may include bulkheads
but not stringers.

Monoplanes. Airplanes with a single set of wings.

Movable slat. A movable auxiliary airfoil on the leading edge
of a wing. It is closed in normal flight but extends at high
angles of attack. This allows air to continue flowing over the
top of the wing and delays airflow separation.

MRA. See minimum reception altitude.

MSA. See minimum safe altitude.

MSL. See mean sea level.

MTR. See military training route.

Multi-function display (MFD). Small screen (CRT or LCD)
in an aircraft that can be used to display information to the
pilot in numerous configurable ways. Often an MFD will be
used in concert with a primary flight display.

MVA. See minimum vectoring altitude.

N1. Rotational speed of the low pressure compressor in a
turbine engine.