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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Manifold absolute pressure. The absolute pressure of the
fuel/air mixture within the intake manifold, usually indicated
in inches of mercury.

MAP. See missed approach point.

Margin identification. The top and bottom areas on an
instrument approach chart that depict information about
the procedure, including airport location and procedure

Marker beacon. A low-powered transmitter that directs its
signal upward in a small, fan-shaped pattern. Used along the
flight path when approaching an airport for landing, marker
beacons indicate both aurally and visually when the aircraft
is directly over the facility.

Mass. The amount of matter in a body.

Maximum altitude. An altitude depicted on an instrument
approach chart with overscored altitude value at which or
below aircraft are required to maintain altitude.

Maximum authorized altitude (MAA). A published altitude
representing the maximum usable altitude or flight level for
an airspace structure or route segment.

Maximum landing weight. The greatest weight that an
airplane normally is allowed to have at landing.

Maximum ramp weight. The total weight of a loaded
aircraft, including all fuel. It is greater than the takeoff
weight due to the fuel that will be burned during the taxi
and runup operations. Ramp weight may also be referred to
as taxi weight.

Maximum takeoff weight. The maximum allowable weight
for takeoff.

Maximum weight. The maximum authorized weight of
the aircraft and all of its equipment as specified in the Type
Certificate Data Sheets (TCDS) for the aircraft.

Maximum zero fuel weight (GAMA). The maximum
weight, exclusive of usable fuel.

MB. See magnetic bearing.

MCA. See minimum crossing altitude.

MDA. See minimum descent altitude.

MEA. See minimum en route altitude.

Mean aerodynamic chord (MAC). The average distance
from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing.
Mean sea level. The average height of the surface of the
sea at a particular location for all stages of the tide over a
19-year period.

MEL. See minimum equipment list.

Meridians. Lines of longitude.

Mesophere. A layer of the atmosphere directly above the

METAR. See Aviation Routine Weather Report.

MFD. See multi-function display.

MH. See magnetic heading.

MHz. Megahertz.

Microburts. A strong downdraft which normally occurs over
horizontal distances of 1 NM or less and vertical distances of
less than 1,000 feet. In spite of its small horizontal scale, an
intense microburst could induce wind speeds greater than 100
knots and downdrafts as strong as 6,000 feet per minute.

Microwave landing system (MLS). A precision instrument
approach system operating in the microwave spectrum which
normally consists of an azimuth station, elevation station,
and precision distance measuring equipment.

Mileage breakdown. A fix indicating a course change
that appears on the chart as an "x" at a break between two
segments of a federal airway.

Military operations area (MOA). Airspace established for
the purpose of separating certain military training activities
from IFR traffic.

Military training route (MTR). Airspace of defined vertical
and lateral dimensions established for the conduct of military
training at airspeeds in excess of 250 knots indicated airspeed

Minimum altitude. An altitude depicted on an instrument
approach chart with the altitude value underscored. Aircraft are
required to maintain altitude at or above the depicted value.

Minimum crossing altitude (MCA). The lowest allowed
altitude at certain .xes an aircraft must cross when proceeding
in the direction of a higher minimum en route altitude