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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Kollsman window. A barometric scale window of a
sensitive altimeter used to adjust the altitude for the
altimeter setting.

LAAS. See local area augmentation system.

Lag. The delay that occurs before an instrument needle attains
a stable indication.

Land breeze. A coastal breeze flowing from land to sea
caused by temperature differences when the sea surface is
warmer than the adjacent land. The land breeze usually occurs
at night and alternates with the sea breeze that blows in the
opposite direction by day.

Land as soon as possible. Land without delay at the nearest
suitable area, such as an open field, at which a safe approach
and landing is assured.

Land as soon as practical. The landing site and duration of
flight are at the discretion of the pilot. Extended flight beyond
the nearest approved landing area is not recommended.

Land immediately. The urgency of the landing is paramount.
The primary consideration is to ensure the survival of the
occupants. Landing in trees, water, or other unsafe areas
should be considered only as a last resort.

Lateral axis. An imaginary line passing through the center
of gravity of an airplane and extending across the airplane
from wingtip to wingtip.

Lateral stability (rolling). The stability about the
longitudinal axis of an aircraft. Rolling stability or the ability
of an airplane to return to level flight due to a disturbance
that causes one of the wings to drop.

Latitude. Measurement north or south of the equator in
degrees, minutes, and seconds. Lines of latitude are also
referred to as parallels.

LDA. See localizer-type directional aid.

Lead radial. The radial at which the turn from the DME arc
to the inbound course is started.

Leading edge. The part of an airfoil that meets the airflow

Leading edge devices. High lift devices which are found
on the leading edge of the airfoil. The most common types
are fixed slots, movable slats, and leading edge flaps.

Leading-edge flap. A portion of the leading edge of an
airplane wing that folds downward to increase the camber,
lift, and drag of the wing. The leading-edge flaps are
extended for takeoffs and landings to increase the amount of
aerodynamic lift that is produced at any given airspeed.

Leans, the. A physical sensation caused by an abrupt
correction of a banked attitude entered too slowly to
stimulate the motion sensing system in the inner ear. The
abrupt correction can create the illusion of banking in the
opposite direction.

Licensed empty weight. The empty weight that consists
of the airframe, engine(s), unusable fuel, and undrainable
oil plus standard and optional equipment as specified in the
equipment list. Some manufacturers used this term prior to
GAMA standardization.

Lift. A component of the total aerodynamic force on an airfoil
and acts perpendicular to the relative wind.

Limit load factor. Amount of stress, or load factor, that an
aircraft can withstand before structural damage or failure

Lines of flux. Invisible lines of magnetic force passing
between the poles of a magnet.

L/MF. See low or medium frequency.

LMM. See locator middle marker.

Load factor. The ratio of a specified load to the total weight
of the aircraft. The specified load is expressed in terms of
any of the following: aerodynamic forces, inertial forces, or
ground or water reactions.

Loadmeter. A type of ammeter installed between the generator
output and the main bus in an aircraft electrical system.

LOC. See localizer.

Local area augmentation system (LAAS). A differential
global positioning system (DGPS) that improves the accuracy
of the system by determining position error from the GPS
satellites, then transmitting the error, or corrective factors,
to the airborne GPS receiver.

Localizer (LOC). The portion of an ILS that gives left/right
guidance information down the centerline of the instrument
runway for final approach.