| Home | Privacy | Contact |


| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Initial approach fix (IAF). The fix depicted on IAP charts
where the instrument approach procedure (IAP) begins unless
otherwise authorized by ATC.

Inoperative components. Higher minimums are prescribed
when the specified visual aids are not functioning; this
information is listed in the Inoperative Components Table found
in the United States Terminal Procedures Publications.

INS. See inertial navigation system.

Instantaneous vertical speed indicator (IVSI). Assists in
interpretation by instantaneously indicating the rate of climb
or descent at a given moment with little or no lag as displayed
in a vertical speed indicator (VSI).

Instrument approach procedures (IAP). A series of
predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an
aircraft under IFR from the beginning of the initial approach
to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be
made visually.

Instrument flight rules (IFR). Rules and regulations
established by the Federal Aviation Administration to govern
flight under conditions in which flight by outside visual
reference is not safe. IFR flight depends upon flying by
reference to instruments in the flight deck, and navigation is
accomplished by reference to electronic signals.

Instrument landing system (ILS). An electronic system
that provides both horizontal and vertical guidance to a
specific runway, used to execute a precision instrument
approach procedure.

Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC).
Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility,
distance from clouds, and ceiling less than the minimums
specified for visual meteorological conditions, requiring
operations to be conducted under IFR.

Instrument takeoff. Using the instruments rather than
outside visual cues to maintain runway heading and execute
a safe takeoff.

Intercooler. A device used to reduce the temperatures of the
compressed air before it enters the fuel metering device. The
resulting cooler air has a higher density, which permits the
engine to be operated with a higher power setting.

Interference drag. Drag generated by the collision of
airstreams creating eddy currents, turbulence, or restrictions
to smooth flow.

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The
United Nations agency for developing the principles and
techniques of international air navigation, and fostering planning
and development of international civil air transport.
International standard atmosphere (IAS). A model of
standard variation of pressure and temperature.

Interpolation. The estimation of an intermediate value
of a quantity that falls between marked values in a series.
Example: In a measurement of length, with a rule that is
marked in eighths of an inch, the value falls between 3/8
inch and 1/2 inch. The estimated (interpolated) value might
then be said to be 7/16 inch.

Inversion. An increase in temperature with altitude.

Inversion illusion. The feeling that the aircraft is tumbling
backwards, caused by an abrupt change from climb to straight and-
level flight while in situations lacking visual reference.

Inverter. A solid-state electronic device that converts D.C.
into A.C. current of the proper voltage and frequency to
operate A.C. gyro instruments.

Isobars. Lines which connect points of equal barometric

Isogonic lines. Lines drawn across aeronautical charts to
connect points having the same magnetic variation.

IVSI. See instantaneous vertical speed indicator.
Jet route. A route designated to serve flight operations from
18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 450.
Jet stream. A high-velocity narrow stream of winds, usually
found near the upper limit of the troposphere, which flows
generally from west to east.

Judgment. The mental process of recognizing and analyzing
all pertinent information in a particular situation, a rational
evaluation of alternative actions in response to it, and a timely
decision on which action to take.

KIAS. Knots indicated airspeed.