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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Final approach fix (FAF). The fix from which the IFR
final approach to an airport is executed, and which identifies
the beginning of the final approach segment. An FAF is
designated on government charts by a Maltese cross symbol
for nonprecision approaches, and a lightning bolt symbol for
precision approaches.

Fixating. Staring at a single instrument, thereby interrupting
the cross-check process.

Fixed-pitch propellers. Propellers with fixed blade angles.

Fixed-pitch propellers are designed as climb propellers,
cruise propellers, or standard propellers.

Fixed slot. A fixed, nozzle shaped opening near the leading
edge of a wing that ducts air onto the top surface of the wing.
Its purpose is to increase lift at higher angles of attack.

FL. See flight level.

Flameout. A condition in the operation of a gas turbine
engine in which the fire in the engine goes out due to either
too much or too little fuel sprayed into the combustors.

Flaps. Hinged portion of the trailing edge between the
ailerons and fuselage. In some aircraft ailerons and flaps are
interconnected to produce full-span "flaperons." In either
case, flaps change the lift and drag on the wing.

Floor load limit. The maximum weight the floor can sustain
per square inch/foot as provided by the manufacturer.

Flight configurations. Adjusting the aircraft control surfaces
(including flaps and landing gear) in a manner that will
achieve a specified attitude.

Flight director indicator (FDI). One of the major components
of a flight director system, it provides steering commands that
the pilot (or the autopilot, if coupled) follows.

Flight level (FL). A measure of altitude (in hundreds of feet)
used by aircraft flying above 18,000 feet with the altimeter
set at 29.92 "Hg.

Flight management system (FMS). Provides pilot and crew
with highly accurate and automatic long-range navigation
capability, blending available inputs from long- and short range

Flight path. The line, course, or track along which an aircraft
is flying or is intended to be flown.

Flight patterns. Basic maneuvers, flown by reference to the
instruments rather than outside visual cues, for the purpose
of practicing basic attitude flying The patterns simulate
maneuvers encountered on instrument flights such as holding
patterns, procedure turns, and approaches.

Flight strips. Paper strips containing instrument flight
information, used by ATC when processing flight plans.

FMS. See flight management system.

FOD. See foreign object damage.

Fog. Cloud consisting of numerous minute water droplets
and based at the surface; droplets are small enough to be
suspended in the earth's atmosphere indefinitely. (Unlike
drizzle, it does not fall to the surface. Fog differs from a
cloud only in that a cloud is not based at the surface, and is
distinguished from haze by its wetness and gray color.)

Force (F). The energy applied to an object that attempts to
cause the object to change its direction, speed, or motion.
In aerodynamics, it is expressed as F, T (thrust), L (lift), W
(weight), or D (drag), usually in pounds.

Foreign object damage (FOD). Damage to a gas turbine
engine caused by some object being sucked into the engine
while it is running. Debris from runways or taxiways can
cause foreign object damage during ground operations, and
the ingestion of ice and birds can cause FOD in flight.

Form drag. The drag created because of the shape of a
component or the aircraft.

Frise-type aileron. Aileron having the nose portion
projecting ahead of the hinge line. When the trailing edge
of the aileron moves up, the nose projects below the wing's
lower surface and produces some parasite drag, decreasing
the amount of adverse yaw.

Front. The boundary between two different air masses.

Frost. Ice crystal deposits formed by sublimation when
temperature and dewpoint are below freezing.

Fuel load. The expendable part of the load of the airplane.
It includes only usable fuel, not fuel required to fill the lines
or that which remains trapped in the tank sumps.

Fundamental skills. Pilot skills of instrument cross-check,
instrument interpretation, and aircraft control.