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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making





14 CFR. See Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

100-hour inspection. An inspection identical in scope to
an annual inspection. Conducted every 100 hours of flight
on aircraft of under 12,500 pounds that are used to carry
passengers for hire.

Absolute accuracy. The ability to determine present position
in space independently, and is most often used by pilots.

Absolute altitude. The actual distance between an aircraft
and the terrain over which it is flying.

Absolute pressure. Pressure measured from the reference
of zero pressure, or a vacuum.

A.C. Alternating current.

Acceleration. Force involved in overcoming inertia, and
which may be defined as a change in velocity per unit of

Acceleration error. A magnetic compass error apparent when
the aircraft accelerates while flying, on an easterly or westerly
heading, causing the compass card to rotate toward North.

Accelerate-go distance. The distance required to accelerate
to V1 with all engines at takeoff power, experience an engine
failure at V1, and continue the takeoff on the remaining
engine(s). The runway required includes the distance
required to climb to 35 feet by which time V2 speed must
be attained.

Accelerate-stop distance. The distance required to accelerate
to V1 with all engines at takeoff power, experience an engine
failure at V1, and abort the takeoff and bring the airplane to
a stop using braking action only (use of thrust reversing is
not considered).

Accelerometer. A part of an inertial navigation system
(INS) that accurately measures the force of acceleration in
one direction.

ADC. See air data computer.

ADF. See automatic direction finder

ADI. See attitude director indicator.

Adiabatic cooling. A process of cooling the air through
expansion. For example, as air moves up slope it expands
with the reduction of atmospheric pressure and cools as it

Adiabatic heating. A process of heating dry air through
compression. For example, as air moves down a slope it is
compressed, which results in an increase in temperature.

Adjustable-pitch propeller. A propeller with blades whose
pitch can be adjusted on the ground with the engine not
running, but which cannot be adjusted in flight. Also referred
to as a ground adjustable propeller. Sometimes also used
to refer to constant-speed propellers that are adjustable in

Adjustable stabilizer. A stabilizer that can be adjusted in
flight to trim the airplane, thereby allowing the airplane to
fly hands-off at any given airspeed.

ADM. See aeronautical decision-making.

ADS-B. See automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast.

Advection fog. Fog resulting from the movement of warm,
humid air over a cold surface.

Adverse yaw. A condition of flight in which the nose of an
airplane tends to yaw toward the outside of the turn. This is
caused by the higher induced drag on the outside wing, which
is also producing more lift. Induced drag is a by-product of
the lift associated with the outside wing.

Aerodynamics. The science of the action of air on an object,
and with the motion of air on other gases. Aerodynamics
deals with the production of lift by the aircraft, the relative
wind, and the atmosphere.