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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Flight Manuals and Other Documents

Aircraft Inspections

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




100-Hour Inspection
All aircraft under 12,500 pounds (except turbojet/
turbopropeller-powered multi-engine airplanes and turbine
powered rotorcraft), used to carry passengers for hire, must
have received a 100-hour inspection within the preceding 100
hours of time in service and have been approved for return to
service. Additionally, an aircraft used for flight instruction
for hire, when provided by the person giving the flight
instruction, must also have received a 100-hour inspection.
This inspection must be performed by an FAA-certificated
A&P mechanic, an appropriately rated FAA-certificated repair
station, or by the aircraft manufacturer. An annual inspection,
or an inspection for the issuance of an Airworthiness
Certificate may be substituted for a required 100-hour
inspection. The 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not
more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where
the inspection can be done. The excess time used to reach a
place where the inspection can be done must be included in
computing the next 100 hours of time in service.

Other Inspection Programs
The annual and 100-hour inspection requirements do not
apply to large (over 12,500 pounds) airplanes, turbojets, or
turbopropeller-powered multi-engine airplanes or to aircraft
for which the owner complies with a progressive inspection
program. Details of these requirements may be determined
by reference to 14 CFR section 43.11 and 14 CFR part 91,
subpart E, and by inquiring at a local FSDO.

Altimeter System Inspection
14 CFR section 91.411 requires that the altimeter, encoding
altimeter, and related system be tested and inspected in the
preceding 24 months before operated in controlled airspace
under instrument flight rules (IFR).

Transponder Inspection
14 CFR section 91.413 requires that before a transponder can
be used under 14 CFR section 91.215(a), it shall be tested
and inspected within the preceding 24 months.

Emergency Locator Transmitter
An emergency locator transmitter (ELT) is required by 14
CFR section 91.207 and must be inspected within 12 calendar
months after the last inspection for the following:
• Proper installation
• Battery corrosion
• Operation of the controls and crash sensor
• The presence of a sufficient signal radiated from its

The ELT must be attached to the airplane in such a manner
that the probability of damage to the transmitter in the event
of crash impact is minimized. Fixed and deployable automatic
type transmitters must be attached to the airplane as far aft
as practicable. Batteries used in the ELTs must be replaced
(or recharged, if the batteries are rechargeable):
• When the transmitter has been in use for more than 1
cumulative hour.
• When 50 percent of the battery useful life (or, for
rechargeable batteries, 50 percent of useful life of the
charge) has expired.

An expiration date for replacing (or recharging) the battery
must be legibly marked on the outside of the transmitter
and entered in the aircraft maintenance record. This does
not apply to batteries that are essentially unaffected during
storage intervals, such as water-activated batteries.

Preflight Inspections
The preflight inspection is a thorough and systematic means
by which a pilot determines if the aircraft is airworthy and in
condition for safe operation. POHs and owner/information
manuals contain a section devoted to a systematic method
of performing a preflight inspection.