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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Flight Manuals and Other Documents

Airplane Flight Manuals (AFM)

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Flight Limits
Flight Limits list authorized maneuvers with appropriate
entry speeds, flight load factor limits, and kinds of operation
limits. It also indicates those maneuvers that are prohibited,
such as spins or acrobatic flight, as well as operational
limitations such as flight into known icing conditions.

Most aircraft display one or more placards that contain
information having a direct bearing on the safe operation of
the aircraft. These placards are located in conspicuous places
and are reproduced in the Limitations section or as directed
by an Airworthiness Directive (AD). [Figure 8-5]

Placards are used to depict aircraft limitations.
Figure 8-5. Placards are used to depict aircraft limitations.

Emergency Procedures (Section 3)
Checklists describing the recommended procedures and
airspeeds for coping with various types of emergencies or
critical situations are located in the Emergency Procedures
section. Some of the emergencies covered include:
engine failure, fire, and system failure. The procedures
for inflight engine restarting and ditching may also be
included. Manufacturers may first show an emergency
checklist in an abbreviated form, with the order of items
reflection the sequence of action. Amplified checklists that
provide additional information on the procedures follow
the abbreviated checklist. To be prepared for emergency
situations, memorize the immediate action items and, after
completion, refer to the appropriate checklist.

Manufacturers may include an optional subsection
titled "Abnormal Procedures." This subsection describes
recommended procedures for handling malfunctions that are
not considered emergencies.

Normal Procedures (Section 4)
This section begins with a list of the airspeeds for normal
operations. The next area consists of several checklists that
may include preflight inspection, before starting procedures,
starting engine, before taxiing, taxiing, before takeoff, climb,
cruise, descent, before landing, balked landing, after landing,
and post flight procedures. An Amplified Procedures area
follows the checklists to provide more detailed information
about the various previously mentioned procedures.

To avoid missing important steps, always use the appropriate
checklists when available. Consistent adherence to approved
checklists is a sign of a disciplined and competent pilot.

Performance (Section 5)
The Performance section contains all the information required
by the aircraft certification regulations, and any additional
performance information the manufacturer deems important to
pilot ability to safely operate the aircraft. Performance charts,
tables, and graphs vary in style, but all contain the same basic
information. Examples of the performance information found
in most flight manuals include a graph or table for converting
calibrated airspeed to true airspeed; stall speeds in various
configurations; and data for determining takeoff and climb
performance, cruise performance, and landing performance.
Figure 8-6 is an example of a typical performance graph. For
more information on use of the charts, graphs, and tables,
refer to Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance.

Weight and Balance/Equipment List (Section 6)
The Weight and Balance/Equipment List section contains all
the information required by the FAA to calculate the weight
and balance of an aircraft. Manufacturers include sample
weight and balance problems. Weight and balance is discussed
in greater detail in Chapter 9, Weight and Balance.

Systems Description (Section 7)
This section describes the aircraft systems in a manner
appropriate to the pilot most likely to operate the aircraft.
For example, a manufacturer might assume an experienced
pilot will be reading the information for an advanced aircraft.
For more information on aircraft systems, refer to Chapter
6, Aircraft Systems.

Handling, Service, and Maintenance (Section 8)
The Handling, Service, and Maintenance section describes
the maintenance and inspections recommended by the
manufacturer (and the regulations). Additional maintenance or
inspections may be required by the issuance of AD applicable
to the airframe, engine, propeller, or components.