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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Flight Manuals and Other Documents

Airplane Flight Manuals (AFM)

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Single-engine airpseed indicator.
Figure 8-1. Single-engine airspeed indicator.

In addition to the markings listed above, small multi-engine
airplanes will have a red radial line to indicate single-engine
minimum controllable airspeed (VMC). A blue radial line
is used to indicate single-engine best rate of climb speed at
maximum weight at sea level (VYSE). [Figure 8-2]

Multi-engine airpseed indicator.
Figure 8-2. Multi-engine airspeed indicator.

The Powerplant Limitations portion describes operating
limitations on an aircraft's reciprocating or turbine engine(s).
These include limitations for takeoff power, maximum
continuous power, and maximum normal operating power,
which is the maximum power the engine can produce without
any restrictions and is depicted by a green arc. Other items
that can be included in this area are the minimum and
maximum oil and fuel pressures, oil and fuel grades, and
propeller operating limits. [Figure 8-3]

Minimum, maximum, and normal operating range
Figure 8-3. Minimum, maximum, and normal operating range
markings on oil gauge.

All reciprocating-engine powered aircraft must have a
revolutions per minute (rpm) indicator for each engine.
Aircraft equipped with a constant-speed propeller or rotor
system use a manifold pressure gauge to monitor power
output and a tachometer to monitor propeller or rotor speed.
Both instruments depict the maximum operating limit with
a red radial line and the normal operating range with a green
arc. [Figure 8-4] Some instruments may have a yellow arc
to indicate a caution area.

Weight and Loading Distribution
Weight and Loading Distribution contains the maximum
certificated weights, as well as the center of gravity (CG)
range. The location of the reference datum used in balance
computations is included in this section. Weight and balance
computations are not provided in this area, but rather in the
weight and balance section of the AFM/POH.

Manifold pressure gauge (top) and tachometer
Figure 8-4. Manifold pressure gauge (top) and tachometer