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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Flight Instruments
Gyroscopic Flight Instruments

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

Preface

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making

Appendix

Glossary

Index

Attitude indicator.
Figure 7-23. Attitude indicator.

The pitch and bank limits depend upon the make and model
of the instrument. Limits in the banking plane are usually
from 100° to 110°, and the pitch limits are usually from 60°
to 70°. If either limit is exceeded, the instrument will tumble
or spill and will give incorrect indications until realigned. A
number of modern attitude indicators do not tumble.

Every pilot should be able to interpret the banking scale
illustrated in Figure 7-24. Most banking scale indicators on
the top of the instrument move in the same direction from
that in which the aircraft is actually banked. Some other
models move in the opposite direction from that in which the
aircraft is actually banked. This may confuse the pilot if the
indicator is used to determine the direction of bank. This scale
should be used only to control the degree of desired bank.
The relationship of the miniature aircraft to the horizon bar
should be used for an indication of the direction of bank.

The attitude indicator is reliable and the most realistic flight
instrument on the instrument panel. Its indications are very
close approximations of the actual attitude of the aircraft.

Attitude representation by the attitude indicator corresponds to the relation of the aircraft to the real horizon.
Figure 7-24. Attitude representation by the attitude indicator corresponds to the relation of the aircraft to the real horizon.
 

7-17