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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Flight Instruments
Gyroscopic Flight Instruments

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Typical vacuum system.
Figure 7-20. Typical vacuum system.

Turn-and-Slip Indicator
The gyro in the turn-and-slip indicator rotates in the vertical
plane, corresponding to the aircraft's longitudinal axis. A
single gimbal limits the planes in which the gyro can tilt, and
a spring tries to return it to center. Because of precession, a
yawing force causes the gyro to tilt left or right, as viewed
from the pilot seat. The turn-and-slip indicator uses a pointer,
called the turn needle, to show the direction and rate of turn.

The turn-and-slip indicator is incapable of "tumbling" off
its rotational axis because of the restraining springs. When
extreme forces are applied to a gyro, the gyro is displaced
from its normal plane of rotation, rendering its indications
invalid. Certain instruments have specific pitch and bank
limits that induce a tumble of the gyro.

Turn Coordinator
The gimbal in the turn coordinator is canted; therefore, its
gyro can sense both rate of roll and rate of turn. Since turn
coordinators are more prevalent in training aircraft, this
discussion concentrates on that instrument. When rolling into
or out of a turn, the miniature aircraft banks in the direction
the aircraft is rolled. A rapid roll rate causes the miniature
aircraft to bank more steeply than a slow roll rate.

Turn indicators rely on controlled precession for their operation.
Figure 7-21. Turn indicators rely on controlled precession for their operation.