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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Aircraft Systems
Anti-Ice and Deice Systems

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Pulse Oximeters
A pulse oximeter is a device that measures the amount of
oxygen in an individual's blood, in addition to heart rate.
This non-invasive device measures the color changes that
red blood cells undergo when they become saturated with
oxygen. By transmitting a special light beam through a
fingertip to evaluate the color of the red cells, a pulse oximeter
can calculate the degree of oxygen saturation within one
percent of directly measured blood oxygen. Because of their
portability and speed, pulse oximeters are very useful for pilots
operating in nonpressurized aircraft above 12,500 feet where
supplemental oxygen is required. A pulse oximeter permits
crewmembers and passengers of an aircraft to evaluate their
actual need for supplemental oxygen. [Figure 6-47]

Onyx pulse oximeter.
Figure 6-47. Onyx pulse oximeter.

Servicing of Oxygen Systems
Before servicing any aircraft with oxygen, consult the
specific aircraft service manual to determine the type of
equipment required and procedures to be used. Certain
precautions should be observed whenever aircraft oxygen
systems are to be serviced. Oxygen system servicing should
be accomplished only when the aircraft is located outside
of the hangars. Personal cleanliness and good housekeeping
are imperative when working with oxygen. Oxygen under
pressure and petroleum products create spontaneous results
when they are brought in contact with each other. Service
people should be certain to wash dirt, oil, and grease
(including lip salves and hair oil) from their hands before
working around oxygen equipment. It is also essential that
clothing and tools are free of oil, grease, and dirt. Aircraft
with permanently installed oxygen tanks usually require two
persons to accomplish servicing of the system. One should
be stationed at the service equipment control valves, and
the other stationed where he or she can observe the aircraft
system pressure gauges. Oxygen system servicing is not
recommended during aircraft fueling operations or while
other work is performed that could provide a source of
ignition. Oxygen system servicing while passengers are on
board the aircraft is not recommended.

Anti-Ice and Deice Systems

Anti-icing equipment is designed to prevent the formation of
ice, while deicing equipment is designed to remove ice once
it has formed. These systems protect the leading edge of wing
and tail surfaces, pitot and static port openings, fuel tank vents,
stall warning devices, windshields, and propeller blades. Ice
detection lighting may also be installed on some aircraft to
determine the extent of structural icing during night flights
Most light aircraft have only a heated pitot tube and are not
certified for flight in icing. These light aircraft have limited
cross-country capability in the cooler climates during late
fall, winter, and early spring. Noncertificated aircraft must
exit icing conditions immediately. Refer to the AFM/POH
for details.

Airfoil Anti-Ice and Deice
Inflatable deicing boots consist of a rubber sheet bonded to
the leading edge of the airfoil. When ice builds up on the
leading edge, an engine-driven pneumatic pump inflates the
rubber boots. Many turboprop aircraft divert engine bleed
air to the wing to inflate the rubber boots. Upon inflation,
the ice is cracked and should fall off the leading edge of the
wing. Deicing boots are controlled from the flight deck by
a switch and can be operated in a single cycle or allowed to
cycle at automatic, timed intervals. [Figure 6-48]

Deicing boots on the leading edge of the wing.
Figure 6-48. Deicing boots on the leading edge of the wing.