## Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Aerodynamics of Flight Forces Acting on the Aircraft

 Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Preface Acknowledgements Appendix Glossary Index • Drag—a rearward, retarding force caused by disruption of airflow by the wing, rotor, fuselage, and other protruding objects. Drag opposes thrust, and acts rearward parallel to the relative wind. • Weight—the combined load of the aircraft itself, the crew, the fuel, and the cargo or baggage. Weight pulls the aircraft downward because of the force of gravity. It opposes lift, and acts vertically downward through the aircraft's center of gravity (CG). • Lift—opposes the downward force of weight, is produced by the dynamic effect of the air acting on the airfoil, and acts perpendicular to the flightpath through the center of lift. In steady flight, the sum of these opposing forces is always zero. There can be no unbalanced forces in steady, straight flight based upon Newton's Third Law, which states that for every action or force there is an equal, but opposite, reaction or force. This is true whether flying level or when climbing or descending. It does not mean the four forces are equal. It means the opposing forces are equal to, and thereby cancel, the effects of each other. In Figure 4-1 the force vectors of thrust, drag, lift, and weight appear to be equal in value. The usual explanation states (without stipulating that thrust and drag do not equal weight and lift) that thrust equals drag and lift equals weight. Although basically true, this statement can be misleading. It should be understood that in straight, level, unaccelerated flight, it is true that the opposing lift/weight forces are equal. They are also greater than the opposing forces of thrust/drag that are equal only to each other. Therefore, in steady flight: • The sum of all upward forces (not just lift) equals the sum of all downward forces (not just weight). • The sum of all forward forces (not just thrust) equals the sum of all backward forces (not just drag). Figure 4-1. Relationship of forces acting on an airplane. Figure 4-2. Force vectors during a stabilized climb. In glides, a portion of the weight vector is directed forward, and, therefore, acts as thrust. In other words, any time the flightpath of the aircraft is not horizontal, lift, weight, thrust, and drag vectors must each be broken down into two components. Discussions of the preceding concepts are frequently omitted in aeronautical texts/handbooks/manuals. The reason is not that they are inconsequential, but because the main ideas with respect to the aerodynamic forces acting upon an airplane in flight can be presented in their most essential elements without being involved in the technicalities of the aerodynamicist. In point of fact, considering only level flight, and normal climbs and glides in a steady state, it is still true that lift provided by the wing or rotor is the primary upward force, and weight is the primary downward force. By using the aerodynamic forces of thrust, drag, lift, and weight, pilots can fly a controlled, safe flight A more detailed discussion of these forces follows. Thrust For an aircraft to move, thrust must be exerted and be greater than drag. The aircraft will continue to move and gain speed until thrust and drag are equal. In order to maintain a constant airspeed, thrust and drag must remain equal, just as lift and weight must be equal to maintain a constant altitude. If in level flight, the engine power is reduced, the thrust is lessened, and the aircraft slows down. As long as the thrust is less than the drag, the aircraft continues to decelerate until its airspeed is insuficient to support it in the air.

4-2