| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Aircraft Structure

Major Components

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Types of flaps.
Figure 2-8. Types of flaps

Alternate Types of Wings

With the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) recent
addition of the LSA category, various methods are employed
to control flight and to produce lift. These methods are
discussed in Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight, which
provides information on the effect controls have on lifting
surfaces from traditional wings to wings that use both flexing
(due to billowing) and shifting (through the change of the
aircraft's CG). Handbooks specific to each category of LSA
are available for the interested pilot. LSA illustrate various
lifting surfaces and control methods. For example, the wing

Weight-shift control aircraft
Figure 2-9. Weight-shift control aircraft use the shifting of weight
for control.


The empennage includes the entire tail group and consists of
fixed surfaces such as the vertical stabilizer and the horizontal
stabilizer. The movable surfaces include the rudder, the
elevator, and one or more trim tabs. [Figure 2-10]

Empennage components.

The rudder is attached to the back of the vertical stabilizer.
During flight, it is used to move the airplane's nose left
and right. The elevator, which is attached to the back of the
horizontal stabilizer, is used to move the nose of the airplane
up and down during flight Trim tabs are small, movable
portions of the trailing edge of the control surface. These
movable trim tabs, which are controlled from the flight deck,
reduce control pressures. Trim tabs may be installed on the
ailerons, the rudder, and/or the elevator.

A second type of empennage design does not require an
elevator. Instead, it incorporates a one-piece horizontal
stabilizer that pivots from a central hinge point. This type of