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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Aeronautical Decision-Making
History of ADM

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Contrary to popular opinion, good judgment can be taught.
Tradition held that good judgment was a natural by-product
of experience, but as pilots continued to log accident-free
flight hours, a corresponding increase of good judgment
was assumed. Building upon the foundation of conventional
decision-making, ADM enhances the process to decrease
the probability of human error and increase the probability
of a safe flight ADM provides a structured, systematic
approach to analyzing changes that occur during a flight
and how these changes might affect a flight's safe outcome.
The ADM process addresses all aspects of decision-making
in the flight deck and identifies the steps involved in good

Steps for good decision making are:
1. Identifying personal attitudes hazardous to safe
2. Learning behavior modification techniques.
3. Learning how to recognize and cope with stress.
4. Developing risk assessment skills.
5. Using all resources.
6. Evaluating the effectiveness of one's ADM skills.

Risk management is an important component of ADM.
When a pilot follows good decision-making practices, the
inherent risk in a flight is reduced or even eliminated. The
ability to make good decisions is based upon direct or indirect
experience and education.

Consider automotive seat belt use. In just two decades, seat
belt use has become the norm, placing those who do not
wear seat belts outside the norm, but this group may learn
to wear a seat belt by either direct or indirect experience. For
example, a driver learns through direct experience about the
value of wearing a seat belt when he or she is involved in a car
accident that leads to a personal injury. An indirect learning
experience occurs when a loved one is injured during a car
accident because he or she failed to wear a seat belt.
While poor decision-making in everyday life does not always
lead to tragedy, the margin for error in aviation is thin. Since
ADM enhances management of an aeronautical environment,
all pilots should become familiar with and employ ADM.

Advisory Circular (AC) 60-22
Figure 17-2. Advisory Circular (AC) 60-22, Aeronautical Decision Making, carries a wealth of information for the pilot to learn.