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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

Latitude and Longitude (Meridians and

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Time zones.
Figure 15-5. Time zones.

These time zone differences must be taken into account
during long flights eastward—especially if the flight must
be completed before dark. Remember, an hour is lost when
flying eastward from one time zone to another, or perhaps
even when flying from the western edge to the eastern edge
of the same time zone. Determine the time of sunset at the
destination by consulting the flight service stations (AFSS/
FSS) or National Weather Service (NWS) and take this into
account when planning an eastbound flight

In most aviation operations, time is expressed in terms of
the 24-hour clock. ATC instructions, weather reports and
broadcasts, and estimated times of arrival are all based on
this system. For example: 9 a.m. is expressed as 0900, 1 p.m.
is 1300, and 10 p.m. is 2200.

Because a pilot may cross several time zones during a flight, a
standard time system has been adopted. It is called Universal
Coordinated Time (UTC) and is often referred to as Zulu
time. UTC is the time at the 0° line of longitude which passes
through Greenwich, England. All of the time zones around
the world are based on this reference. To convert to this time,
a pilot should do the following:
Eastern Standard Time..........Add 5 hours
Central Standard Time..........Add 6 hours
Mountain Standard Time...... Add 7 hours
Pacific Standard Time.......... Add 8 hours
For Daylight Saving Time, 1 hour should be subtracted from
the calculated times.

Measurement of Direction
By using the meridians, direction from one point to another
can be measured in degrees, in a clockwise direction from
true north. To indicate a course to be followed in flight, draw a
line on the chart from the point of departure to the destination
and measure the angle which this line forms with a meridian.
Direction is expressed in degrees, as shown by the compass
rose in Figure 15-6.