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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

Latitude and Longitude (Meridians and

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




World aeronautical chart.
Figure 15-3. World aeronautical chart.

Meridians and parallels

Figure 15-4. Meridians and parallels—the basis of measuring time, distance, and direction.

The standard practice is to establish a time zone for each
15° of longitude. This makes a difference of exactly 1 hour
between each zone. In the United States, there are four time
zones. The time zones are Eastern (75°), Central (90°),
Mountain (105°), and Pacific (120°). The dividing lines are
somewhat irregular because communities near the boundaries
often find it more convenient to use time designations of
neighboring communities or trade centers.

Figure 15-5 shows the time zones in the United States.
When the sun is directly above the 90th meridian, it is noon
Central Standard Time. At the same time, it is 1 p.m. Eastern
Standard Time, 11 a.m. Mountain Standard Time, and 10
a.m. Pacific Standard Time. When Daylight Saving Time is
in effect, generally between the second Sunday in March and
the first Sunday in November, the sun is directly above the
75th meridian at noon, Central Daylight Time.