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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

Lost Procedures

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




In summary, be careful not to rely on GPS to solve all VFR
navigational problems. Unless an IFR receiver is installed in
accordance with IFR requirements, no standard of accuracy
or integrity has been assured. While the practicality of
GPS is compelling, the fact remains that only the pilot can
navigate the aircraft, and GPS is just one of the pilot's tools
to do the job.

VFR Waypoints
VFR waypoints provide VFR pilots with a supplementary
tool to assist with position awareness while navigating
visually in aircraft equipped with area navigation receivers.
VFR waypoints should be used as a tool to supplement current
navigation procedures. The uses of VFR waypoints include
providing navigational aids for pilots unfamiliar with an area,
waypoint definition of existing reporting points, enhanced
navigation in and around Class B and Class C airspace, and
enhanced navigation around Special Use Airspace. VFR
pilots should rely on appropriate and current aeronautical
charts published specifically for visual navigation. If
operating in a terminal area, pilots should take advantage of
the Terminal Area Chart available for that area, if published.
The use of VFR waypoints does not relieve the pilot of any
responsibility to comply with the operational requirements
of 14 CFR part 91.

VFR waypoint names (for computer entry and flight plans)
consist of five letters beginning with the letters "VP"
and are retrievable from navigation databases. The VFR
waypoint names are not intended to be pronounceable,
and they are not for use in ATC communications. On VFR
charts, a stand-alone VFR waypoint is portrayed using the
same four-point star symbol used for IFR waypoints. VFR
waypoint collocated with a visual checkpoint on the chart is
identified by a small magenta flag symbol. A VFR waypoint
collocated with a visual checkpoint is pronounceable based
on the name of the visual checkpoint and may be used for
ATC communications. Each VFR waypoint name appears in
parentheses adjacent to the geographic location on the chart.
Latitude/longitude data for all established VFR waypoints
may be found in the appropriate regional A/FD.

When filing VFR flight plans, use the five letter identifier as
a waypoint in the route of flight section if there is an intended
course change at that point or if used to describe the planned
route of flight This VFR .ling would be similar to VOR use
in a route of flight Pilots must use the VFR waypoints only
when operating under VFR conditions.

Any VFR waypoints intended for use during a flight should
be loaded into the receiver while on the ground and prior to
departure. Once airborne, pilots should avoid programming
routes or VFR waypoint chains into their receivers.

Pilots should be especially vigilant for other traffic while
operating near VFR waypoints. The same effort to see
and avoid other aircraft near VFR waypoints is necessary,
as is the case when operating near VORs and NDBs. In
fact, the increased accuracy of navigation through the use
of GPS demands even greater vigilance, as off-course
deviations among different pilots and receivers is less.
When operating near a VFR waypoint, use whatever ATC
services are available, even if outside a class of airspace
where communications are required. Regardless of the class
of airspace, monitor the available ATC frequency closely for
information on other aircraft operating in the vicinity. It is
also a good idea to turn on landing light(s) when operating
near a VFR waypoint to make the aircraft more conspicuous
to other pilots, especially when visibility is reduced.

Lost Procedures

Getting lost in an aircraft is a potentially dangerous situation
especially when low on fuel. If a pilot becomes lost, there
are some good common sense procedures to follow. If a
town or city cannot be seen, the first thing to do is climb,
being mindful of traffic and weather conditions. An increase
in altitude increases radio and navigation reception range,
and also increases radar coverage. If flying near a town or
city, it might be possible to read the name of the town on a
water tower.

If the aircraft has a navigational radio, such as a VOR or ADF
receiver, it can be possible to determine position by plotting
an azimuth from two or more navigational facilities. If GPS
is installed, or a pilot has a portable aviation GPS on board,
it can be used to determine the position and the location of
the nearest airport.

Communicate with any available facility using frequencies
shown on the sectional chart. If contact is made with a
controller, radar vectors may be offered. Other facilities may
offer direction finding (DF) assistance. To use this procedure,
the controller requests the pilot to hold down the transmit
button for a few seconds and then release it. The controller
may ask the pilot to change directions a few times and repeat
the transmit procedure. This gives the controller enough
information to plot the aircraft position and then give vectors
to a suitable landing site. If the situation becomes threatening,
transmit the situation on the emergency frequency 121.5 MHz
and set the transponder to 7700. Most facilities, and even
airliners, monitor the emergency frequency.