## Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Navigation Basic Calculations

Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

Preface

Acknowledgements

Appendix

Glossary

Index Figure 15-17. Establishing a wind correction angle that will counteract wind drift and maintain the desired course.
 To summarize: • Course—intended path of an aircraft over the ground or the direction of a line drawn on a chart representing the intended aircraft path, expressed as the angle measured from a specific reference datum clockwise from 0° through 360° to the line. • Heading—direction in which the nose of the aircraft points during flight • Track—actual path made over the ground in flight, (If proper correction has been made for the wind, track and course are identical.) • Drift angle—angle between heading and track. • WCA—correction applied to the course to establish a heading so that track coincides with course. • Airspeed—rate of the aircraft's progress through the air. • GS—rate of the aircraft's inflight progress over the ground. Basic Calculations Before a cross-country flight, a pilot should make common calculations for time, speed, and distance, and the amount of fuel required. Converting Minutes to Equivalent Hours Frequently, it is necessary to convert minutes into equivalent hours when solving speed, time, and distance problems. To convert minutes to hours, divide by 60 (60 minutes = 1 hour). Thus, 30 minutes is 30/60 = 0.5 hour. To convert hours to minutes, multiply by 60. Thus, 0.75 hour equals 0.75 x 60 = 45 minutes. Time T = D/GS To find the time (T) in flight, divide the distance (D) by the GS. The time to fly 210 NM at a GS of 140 knots is 210 ÷ 140, or 1.5 hours. (The 0.5 hour multiplied by 60 minutes equals 30 minutes.) Answer: 1:30. Distance D = GS X T To find the distance .own in a given time, multiply GS by time. The distance flown in 1 hour 45 minutes at a GS of 120 knots is 120 x 1.75, or 210 NM. GS GS = D/T To find the GS, divide the distance flown by the time required. If an aircraft flies 270 NM in 3 hours, the GS is 270 ÷ 3 = 90 knots. Converting Knots to Miles Per Hour Another conversion is that of changing knots to miles per hour (mph). The aviation industry is using knots more frequently than mph, but it might be well to discuss the conversion for those that use mph when working with speed problems. The NWS reports both surface winds and winds aloft in knots. However, airspeed indicators in some aircraft are calibrated in mph (although many are now calibrated in both miles per hour and knots). Pilots, therefore, should learn to convert wind speeds that are reported in knots to mph. A knot is 1 nautical mile per hour (NMPH). Because there are 6,076.1 feet in 1 NM and 5,280 feet in 1 SM, the conversion factor is 1.15. To convert knots to miles per hour, multiply speed in knots by 1.15. For example: a wind speed of 20 knots is equivalent to 23 mph. Most flight computers or electronic calculators have a means of making this conversion. Another quick method of conversion is to use the scales of NM and SM at the bottom of aeronautical charts.

15-11