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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Military Training Routes (MTRs)
MTRs are routes used by military aircraft to maintain
proficiency in tactical flying. These routes are usually
established below 10,000 feet MSL for operations at speeds
in excess of 250 knots. Some route segments may be defined
at higher altitudes for purposes of route continuity. Routes are
identified as IFR (IR), and VFR (VR), followed by a number.
[Figure 14-7] MTRs with no segment above 1,500 feet
AGL are identified by four number characters (e.g., IR1206,
VR1207). MTRs that include one or more segments above
1,500 feet AGL are identified by three number characters
(e.g., IR206, VR207). IFR low altitude en route charts
depict all IR routes and all VR routes that accommodate
operations above 1,500 feet AGL. IR routes are conducted
in accordance with IFR regardless of weather conditions.
VFR sectional charts depict military training activities such
as IR, VR, MOA, restricted area, warning area, and alert
area information.

Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR)
A flight data center (FDC) Notice to Airmen (NOTAM)
is issued to designate a TFR. The NOTAM begins with
the phrase "FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS" followed by the
location of the temporary restriction, effective time period,
area defined in statute miles, and altitudes affected. The
NOTAM also contains the FAA coordination facility and
telephone number, the reason for the restriction, and any other
information deemed appropriate. The pilot should check the
NOTAMs as part of flight planning.
Some of the purposes for establishing a TFR are:
• Protect persons and property in the air or on the surface
from an existing or imminent hazard.
• Provide a safe environment for the operation of
disaster relief aircraft.
• Prevent an unsafe congestion of sightseeing aircraft
above an incident or event, which may generate a high
degree of public interest.
• Protect declared national disasters for humanitarian
reasons in the State of Hawaii.
• Protect the President, Vice President, or other public
• Provide a safe environment for space agency

Since the events of September 11, 2001, the use of TFRs has
become much more common. There have been a number
of incidents of aircraft incursions into TFRs, which have
resulted in pilots undergoing security investigations and
certificate suspensions. It is a pilot's responsibility to be
aware of TFRs in their proposed area of flight One way to
check is to visit the FAA website, www.tfr.faa.gov, and verify
that there is not a TFR in the area.

Parachute Jump Aircraft Operations
Parachute jump aircraft operations are published in the
Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD). Sites that are used
frequently are depicted on sectional charts.

Military training route (MTR) chart symbols.
Figure 14-7. Military training route (MTR) chart symbols.

Published VFR Routes
Published VFR routes are for transitioning around, under, or
through some complex airspace. Terms such as VFR flyway,
VFR corridor, Class B airspace VFR transition route, and
terminal area VFR route have been applied to such routes.
These routes are generally found on VFR terminal area
planning charts.

Terminal Radar Service Areas (TRSAs)
TRSAs are areas where participating pilots can receive
additional radar services. The purpose of the service is
to provide separation between all IFR operations and
participating VFR aircraft.

The primary airport(s) within the TRSA become(s) Class D
airspace. The remaining portion of the TRSA overlies other
controlled airspace, which is normally Class E airspace
beginning at 700 or 1,200 feet and established to transition to/
from the en route/terminal environment. TRSAs are depicted
on VFR sectional charts and terminal area charts with a solid
black line and altitudes for each segment. The Class D portion
is charted with a blue segmented line. Participation in TRSA
services is voluntary; however, pilots operating under VFR
are encouraged to contact the radar approach control and take
advantage of TRSA service.

National Security Areas (NSAs)
NSAs consist of airspace of defined vertical and lateral
dimensions established at locations where there is a
requirement for increased security and safety of ground
facilities. Flight in NSAs may be temporarily prohibited by
regulation under the provisions of Title 14 of the Code of
Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 99, and prohibitions are
disseminated via NOTAM. Pilots are requested to voluntarily
avoid flying through these depicted areas.