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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

Other Airspace Areas

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Restricted areas are charted with an "R" followed by a
number (e.g., R-4401) and are depicted on the en route
chart appropriate for use at the altitude or FL being flown.
[Figure 14-3] Restricted area information can be obtained
on the back of the chart.

Restricted areas on a sectional chart.
Figure 14-3. Restricted areas on a sectional chart.

Warning Areas
Warning areas are similar in nature to restricted areas;
however, the United States government does not have sole
jurisdiction over the airspace. A warning area is airspace of
defined dimensions, extending from 12 NM outward from
the coast of the United States, containing activity that may
be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft. The purpose of
such areas is to warn nonparticipating pilots of the potential
danger. A warning area may be located over domestic or
international waters or both. The airspace is designated with
a "W" followed by a number (e.g., W-237). [Figure 14-4]

Military Operation Areas (MOAs)
MOAs consist of airspace with defined vertical and lateral
limits established for the purpose of separating certain
military training activities from IFR traffic. Whenever an
MOA is being used, nonparticipating IFR traffic may be
cleared through an MOA if IFR separation can be provided by
ATC. Otherwise, ATC reroutes or restricts nonparticipating
IFR traffic. MOAs are depicted on sectional, VFR terminal
area, and en route low altitude charts and are not numbered
(e.g., "Camden Ridge MOA"). [Figure 14-5] However, the
MOA is also further defined on the back of the sectional
charts with times of operation, altitudes affected, and the
controlling agency.

Requirements for airspace operations.
Figure 14-4. Requirements for airspace operations.

Alert Areas
Alert areas are depicted on aeronautical charts with an "A"
followed by a number (e.g., A-211) to inform nonparticipating
pilots of areas that may contain a high volume of pilot training
or an unusual type of aerial activity. Pilots should exercise
caution in alert areas. All activity within an alert area shall
be conducted in accordance with regulations, without waiver,
and pilots of participating aircraft, as well as pilots transiting
the area, shall be equally responsible for collision avoidance.
[Figure 14-6]

Controlled Firing Areas (CFAs)
CFAs contain activities, which, if not conducted in a controlled
environment, could be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft.
The difference between CFAs and other special use airspace
is that activities must be suspended when a spotter aircraft,
radar, or ground lookout position indicates an aircraft might
be approaching the area. There is no need to chart CFAs
since they do not cause a nonparticipating aircraft to change
its flightpath

Other Airspace Areas

"Other airspace areas" is a general term referring to the
majority of the remaining airspace. It includes:
• Local airport advisory
• Military training route (MTR)
• Temporary flight restriction (TFR)
• Parachute jump aircraft operations
• Published VFR routes
• Terminal radar service area (TRSA)