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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Airport Operations

Airport Markings and Signs

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

Preface

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making

Appendix

Glossary

Index

Vehicle roadway markings.
Figure 13-4. Vehicle roadway markings.

Since aircraft are affected by the wind during takeoffs
and landings, runways are laid out according to the local
prevailing winds. Runway numbers are in reference to
magnetic north. Certain airports have two or even three
runways laid out in the same direction. These are referred to
as parallel runways and are distinguished by a letter added
to the runway number (e.g., runway 36L (left), 36C (center),
and 36R (right)).

Another feature of some runways is a displaced threshold. A
threshold may be displaced because of an obstruction near
the end of the runway. Although this portion of the runway
is not to be used for landing, it may be available for taxiing,
takeoff, or landing rollout. Some airports may have a blast
pad/stopway area. The blast pad is an area where a propeller
or jet blast can dissipate without creating a hazard. The
stopway area is paved in order to provide space for an aircraft
to decelerate and stop in the event of an aborted takeoff. These
areas cannot be used for takeoff or landing.

Taxiway Markings
Aircraft use taxiways to transition from parking areas to the
runway. Taxiways are identified by a continuous yellow
centerline stripe and may include edge markings to define the
edge of the taxiway. This is usually done when the taxiway
edge does not correspond with the edge of the pavement. If an
edge marking is a continuous line, the paved shoulder is not
intended to be used by an aircraft. If it is a dashed marking,
an aircraft may use that portion of the pavement. Where a
taxiway approaches a runway, there may be a holding position
marker. These consist of four yellow lines (two solid and two
dashed). The solid lines are where the aircraft is to hold. At
some towered airports, holding position markings may be
found on a runway. They are used when there are intersecting
runways, and ATC issues instructions such as "cleared to
land—hold short of runway 30."

At some towered airports, holding position markings may be
found on a runway. They are used when there are intersecting
runways, and ATC issues instructions such as "cleared to
land—hold short of runway 30."

Other Markings
Some other markings found on the airport include vehicle
roadway markings, VOR receiver checkpoint markings, and
non-movement area boundary markings.

Vehicle roadway markings are used when necessary to define
a pathway for vehicle crossing areas that are also intended
for aircraft. These markings usually consist of a solid white
line to delineate each edge of the roadway and a dashed line
to separate lanes within the edges of the roadway. In lieu of
the solid lines, zipper markings may be used to delineate the
edges of the vehicle roadway. [Figure 13-4]

A VOR receiver checkpoint marking consists of a painted
circle with an arrow in the middle. The arrow is aligned in
the direction of the checkpoint azimuth. This allows pilots to
check aircraft instruments with navigational aid signals.

A non-movement area boundary marking delineates a
movement area under ATC. These markings are yellow and
located on the boundary between the movement and
nonmovement area. They normally consist of two yellow lines
(one solid and one dashed).

 

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