| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Airport Operations

Collision Avoidance

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Clearing Procedures
The following procedures and considerations should assist a
pilot in collision avoidance under various situations.
• Before takeoff—prior to taxiing onto a runway or
landing area in preparation for takeoff, pilots should
scan the approach area for possible landing traffic,
executing appropriate maneuvers to provide a clear
view of the approach areas.
• Climbs and descents—during climbs and descents
in flight conditions which permit visual detection of
other traffic, pilots should execute gentle banks left
and right at a frequency which permits continuous
visual scanning of the airspace.
• Straight and level—during sustained periods of straight and-
level flight, a pilot should execute appropriate
clearing procedures at periodic intervals.
• Traffic patterns—entries into traffic patterns while
descending should be avoided.
• Traffic at VOR sites—due to converging traffic,
sustained vigilance should be maintained in the
vicinity of VORs and intersections.
• Training operations—vigilance should be maintained
and clearing turns should be made prior to a practice
maneuver. During instruction, the pilot should be
asked to verbalize the clearing procedures (call out
"clear left, right, above, and below").
High-wing and low-wing aircraft have their respective blind
spots. The pilot of a high-wing aircraft should momentarily
raise the wing in the direction of the intended turn and look
for traffic prior to commencing the turn. The pilot of a flowing
aircraft should momentarily lower the wing and look
for traffic prior to commencing the turn.

Runway Incursion Avoidance
A runway incursion is "any occurrence in the airport runway
environment involving an aircraft, vehicle, person, or object
on the ground that creates a collision hazard or results in a loss
of required separation with an aircraft taking off, intending
to take off, landing, or intending to land." It is important
to give the same attention to operating on the surface as in
other phases of flights Proper planning can prevent runway
incursions and the possibility of a ground collision. A pilot
should be aware of the aircraft's position on the surface at all
times and be aware of other aircraft and vehicle operations
on the airport. At times towered airports can be busy and taxi
instructions complex. In this situation it may be advisable
to write down taxi instructions.

The following are some practices to help prevent a runway
• Read back all runway crossing and/or hold
• Review airport layouts as part of preflight planning,
before descending to land and while taxiing, as
• Know airport signage.
• Review NOTAM for information on runway/taxiway
closures and construction areas.
• Request progressive taxi instructions from ATC when
unsure of the taxi route.
• Check for traffic before crossing any runway hold line
and before entering a taxiway.
• Turn on aircraft lights and the rotating beacon or strobe
lights while taxing.
• When landing, clear the active runway as soon as
possible, then wait for taxi instructions before further
• Study and use proper phraseology in order to understand
and respond to ground control instructions.
• Write down complex taxi instructions at unfamiliar

For more detailed information, contact the FAA's Office
of Runway Safety and Operational Services web site at
http://www.faa.gov/runway safety/ or visit http://www.aopa.
org/asf/accident_data/incursions.html to access a learning
tool developed by the FAA and the Aircraft Owners and
Pilots Association (AOPA) to help pilots and maintenance
technicians avoid runway incursions involving taxiing
aircraft. Additional information can also be found in Advisory
Circular (AC) 91-73, Part 91, Pilot and Flight crew Procedures
During Taxi Operations, and Part 135, Single-Pilot Procedures
During Taxi Operations.

Chapter Summary

This chapter focused on airport operations both in the air and
on the surface. For specific information about an unfamiliar
airport, consult the A/FD and NOTAMS before flying For
further information regarding procedures discussed in this
chapter, refer to 14 CFR part 91 and the AIM. By adhering
to established procedures, both airport operations and safety
are enhanced.