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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Airport Operations

Air Traffic Control (ATC) Services

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Lost Communication Procedures
It is possible that a pilot might experience a malfunction of
the radio. This might cause the transmitter, receiver, or both
to become inoperative. If a receiver becomes inoperative and
a pilot needs to land at a towered airport, it is advisable to
remain outside or above Class D airspace until the direction
and flow of traffic is determined. A pilot should then advise
the tower of the aircraft type, position, altitude, and intention
to land. The pilot should continue, enter the pattern, report a
position as appropriate, and watch for light signals from the
tower. Light signal colors and their meanings are contained
in Figure 13-17.

If the transmitter becomes inoperative, a pilot should
follow the previously stated procedures and also monitor
the appropriate ATC frequency. During daylight hours ATC
transmissions may be acknowledged by rocking the wings,
and at night by blinking the landing light.

When both receiver and transmitter are inoperative, the pilot
should remain outside of Class D airspace until the .ow of
traffic has been determined and then enter the pattern and
watch for light signals.

If a radio malfunctions prior to departure, it is advisable to
have it repaired, if possible. If this is not possible, a call should
be made to ATC and the pilot should request authorization
to depart without two-way radio communications. If
authorization is given to depart, the pilot is advised to monitor
the appropriate frequency and/or watch for light signals as

Air Traffic Control (ATC) Services

Besides the services provided by an FSS as discussed in
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services, numerous other
services are provided by ATC. In many instances a pilot
is required to have contact with ATC, but even when not
required, a pilot finds it helpful to request their services.

Primary Radar
Radar is a device which provides information on range,
azimuth, and/or elevation of objects in the path of the
transmitted pulses. It measures the time interval between
transmission and reception of radio pulses and correlates the
angular orientation of the radiated antenna beam or beams in
azimuth and/or elevation. Range is determined by measuring
the time it takes for the radio wave to go out to the object
and then return to the receiving antenna. The direction of a
detected object from a radar site is determined by the position
of the rotating antenna when the reflected portion of the radio
wave is received.

Modern radar is very reliable and there are seldom outages.
This is due to reliable maintenance and improved equipment.
There are, however, some limitations which may affect ATC
services and prevent a controller from issuing advisories
concerning aircraft which are not under his or her control
and cannot be seen on radar.

The characteristics of radio waves are such that they normally
travel in a continuous straight line unless they are "bent" by
atmospheric phenomena such as temperature inversions,
reflected or attenuated by dense objects such as heavy clouds
and precipitation, or screened by high terrain features.