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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Aviation Weather Services

Aviation Weather Reports

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Descriptors and weather phenomena used in a typical METAR.
Figure 12-8. Descriptors and weather phenomena used in a typical METAR.

Reportable contractions for sky condition.
Figure 12-9. Reportable contractions for sky condition.

12. Remarks—the remarks section always begins with the
letters "RMK." Comments may or may not appear in
this section of the METAR. The information contained
in this section may include wind data, variable visibility,
beginning and ending times of particular phenomenon,
pressure information, and various other information
deemed necessary. An example of a remark regarding
weather phenomenon that does not fit in any other
category would be: OCNL LTGICCG. This translates
as occasional lightning in the clouds and from cloud
to ground. Automated stations also use the remarks
section to indicate the equipment needs maintenance.
METAR KGGG 161753Z AUTO 14021G26 3/4SM
+TSRA BR BKN008 OVC012CB 18/17 A2970 RMK

Routine METAR for Gregg County Airport for the 16th
day of the month at 1753Z automated source. Winds are
140 at 21 knots gusting to 26. Visibility is ¾ statute mile.
Thunderstorms with heavy rain and mist. Ceiling is broken
at 800 feet, overcast at 1,200 feet with cumulonimbus clouds.
Temperature 18 °C and dew point 17 °C. Barometric pressure
is 29.70 "Hg and falling rapidly.

Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs)
PIREPs provide valuable information regarding the conditions
as they actually exist in the air, which cannot be gathered from
any other source. Pilots can confirm the height of bases and
tops of clouds, locations of wind shear and turbulence, and
the location of inflight icing. If the ceiling is below 5,000
feet, or visibility is at or below five miles, ATC facilities
are required to solicit PIREPs from pilots in the area. When
unexpected weather conditions are encountered, pilots are
encouraged to make a report to a FSS or ATC. When a pilot
weather report is filed, the ATC facility or FSS will add it
to the distribution system to brief other pilots and provide
inflight advisories.

PIREPs are easy to file and a standard reporting form outlines
the manner in which they should be filed. Figure 12-10 shows
the elements of a PIREP form. Item numbers 1 through 5 are
required information when making a report, as well as at least
one weather phenomenon encountered. A PIREP is normally
transmitted as an individual report, but may be appended to
a surface report. Pilot reports are easily decoded and most
contractions used in the reports are self-explanatory.