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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Aircraft Performance
Transport Category Airplane Performance

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Runway Requirements
The runway requirements for takeoff are affected by:
• Pressure altitude
• Temperature
• Headwind component
• Runway gradient or slope
• Aircraft weight

The runway required for takeoff must be based upon the
possible loss of an engine at the most critical point, which is
at V1 (decision speed). By regulation, the aircraft's takeoff
weight has to accommodate the longest of three distances:
1. Accelerate-go distance—the distance required to
accelerate to V1 with all engines at takeoff power,
experience an engine failure at V1 and continue the
takeoff on the remaining engine(s). The runway
required includes the distance required to climb to 35
feet by which time V2 speed must be attained.
2. Accelerate-stop distance—the distance required to
accelerate to V1 with all engines at takeoff power,
experience an engine failure at V1, and abort the takeoff
and bring the aircraft to a stop using braking action
only (use of thrust reversing is not considered).

3. Takeoff distance—the distance required to complete
an all-engines operative takeoff to the 35-foot height.
It must be at least 15 percent less than the distance
required for a one-engine inoperative engine takeoff.
This distance is not normally a limiting factor as it is
usually less than the one-engine inoperative takeoff
These three required takeoff runway considerations are
shown in Figure 10-34.

Balanced Field Length
In most cases, the pilot will be working with a performance
chart for takeoff runway required, which will give "balanced
field length" information. This means that the distance
shown for the takeoff will include both the accelerate-go and
accelerate-stop distances. One effective means of presenting
the normal takeoff data is shown in the tabulated chart in
Figure 10-35.

Minimum required takeoff.
Figure 10-34. Minimum required takeoff.