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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Aircraft Performance
Takeoff and Landing Performance

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




Takeoff distance chart.
Figure 10-14. Takeoff distance chart.

Power required curve.
Figure 10-13. Power required curve.

Merely lowering the nose of the airplane to regain flying
speed in this situation, without the use of power, would result
in a rapid sink rate and corresponding loss of altitude.

If during a soft-fleld takeoff and climb, for example, the pilot
attempts to climb out of ground effect without first attaining
normal climb pitch attitude and airspeed, the airplane may
inadvertently enter the region of reversed command at a
dangerously low altitude. Even with full power, the airplane
may be incapable of climbing or even maintaining altitude.
The pilot's only recourse in this situation is to lower the pitch
attitude in order to increase airspeed, which will inevitably
result in a loss of altitude.

Airplane pilots must give particular attention to precise
control of airspeed when operating in the low flight speeds
of the region of reversed command.

Takeoff and Landing Performance

The majority of pilot-caused aircraft accidents occur during
the takeoff and landing phase of flight. Because of this fact,
the pilot must be familiar with all the variables that influence
the takeoff and landing performance of an aircraft and must
strive for exacting, professional procedures of operation
during these phases of flight.

Takeoff and landing performance is a condition of accelerated
and decelerated motion. For instance, during takeoff, an
aircraft starts at zero speed and accelerates to the takeoff
speed to become airborne. During landing, the aircraft touches
down at the landing speed and decelerates to zero speed. The
important factors of takeoff or landing performance are:

• The takeoff or landing speed is generally a function
of the stall speed or minimum flying speed.
• The rate of acceleration/deceleration during the
takeoff or landing roll. The speed (acceleration and
deceleration) experienced by any object varies directly
with the imbalance of force and inversely with the
mass of the object. An airplane on the runway moving
at 75 knots has four times the energy it has traveling
at 37 knots. Thus, an airplane requires four times as
much distance to stop as required at half the speed.
• The takeoff or landing roll distance is a function of
both acceleration/deceleration and speed.

Runway Surface and Gradient
Runway conditions affect takeoff and landing performance.
Typically, performance chart information assumes paved, level,
smooth, and dry runway surfaces. Since no two runways are
alike, the runway surface differs from one runway to another,
as does the runway gradient or slope. [Figure 10-14]