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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Introduction To Flying
The Role of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




The Professional Air Traffic Controllers
Organization (PATCO) Strike

While preparing the NAS Plan, the FAA faced a strike
by key members of its workforce. An earlier period of
discord between management and the Professional Air
Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) culminated in a
1970 "sick-out" by 3,000 controllers. Although controllers
subsequently gained additional wage and retirement
benefits, another period of tension led to an illegal strike in
August 1981. The government dismissed over 11,000 strike
participants and decertified PATCO. By the spring of 1984,
the FAA ended the last of the special restrictions imposed to
keep the airspace system operating safely during the strike.

The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978
Until 1978, the CAB regulated many areas of commercial
aviation such as fares, routes, and schedules. The Airline
Deregulation Act of 1978, however, removed many of
these controls, thus changing the face of civil aviation in the
United States. After deregulation, unfettered free competition
ushered in a new era in passenger air travel.

The CAB had three main functions: to award routes to
airlines, to limit the entry of air carriers into new markets,
and to regulate fares for passengers. Much of the established
practices of commercial passenger travel within the United
States went back to the policies of Walter Folger Brown, the
United States Postmaster General during the administration
of President Herbert Hoover. Brown had changed the mail
payments system to encourage the manufacture of passenger
aircraft instead of mail-carrying aircraft. His influence
was crucial in awarding contracts and helped create four
major domestic airlines: United, American, Eastern, and
Transcontinental and Western Air (TWA). Similarly,
Brown had also helped give Pan American a monopoly on
international routes.

The push to deregulate, or at least to reform the existing laws
governing passenger carriers, was accelerated by President
Jimmy Carter, who appointed economist and former professor
Alfred Kahn, a vocal supporter of deregulation, to head the
CAB. A second force to deregulate emerged from abroad.
In 1977, Freddie Laker, a British entrepreneur who owned
Laker Airways, created the Skytrain service, which offered
extraordinarily cheap fares for transatlantic flights Laker's
offerings coincided with a boom in low-cost domestic flights
as the CAB eased some limitations on charter flights, i.e.,
flights offered by companies that do not actually own planes
but leased them from the major airlines. The big air carriers
responded by proposing their own lower fares. For example,
American Airlines, the country's second largest airline,
obtained CAB approval for "Super Saver" tickets.

All of these events proved to be favorable for large-scale
deregulation. In November 1977, Congress formally
deregulated air cargo. In late 1978, Congress passed the Airline
Deregulation Act of 1978, legislation that had been principally
authored by Senators Edward Kennedy and Howard Cannon.
[Figure 1-11] There was stiff opposition to the bill—from the
major airlines who feared free competition, from labor unions
who feared nonunion employees, and from safety advocates
who feared that safety would be sacrificed. Public support was,
however, strong enough to pass the act. The act appeased the
major airlines by offering generous subsidies and it pleased
workers by offering high unemployment benefits if they lost
their jobs as a result. The most important effect of the act,
whose laws were slowly phased in, was on the passenger
market. For the first time in 40 years, airlines could enter the
market or (from 1981) expand their routes as they saw .t.
Airlines (from 1982) also had full freedom to set their fares.
In 1984, the CAB was finally abolished since its primary duty
of regulating the airline industry was no longer necessary.

President Jimmy Carter signs the Airline Deregulation Act in late 1978.
Figure 1-11. President Jimmy Carter signs the Airline Deregulation
Act in late 1978.

The Role of the Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA)

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
The FAA is empowered by regulations to promote aviation
safety and establish safety standards for civil aviation. The
FAA achieves these objectives under the Code of Federal
Regulations (CFR), which is the codification of the general
and permanent rules published by the executive departments
and agencies of the United States Government. The
regulations are divided into 50 different codes, called Titles,
that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation. FAA
regulations are listed under Title 14, Aeronautics and Space,
which encompasses all aspects of civil aviation from how
to earn a pilot's certificate to maintenance of an aircraft.