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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Introduction To Flying
Knowledge and Skill Examinations

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




The applicant must provide an airworthy aircraft with
equipment relevant to the areas of operation required for
the practical test. He or she will also be asked to produce
and explain the:
• Aircraft's registration certificate
• Aircraft's airworthiness certificate
• Aircraft's operating limitations or FAA-approved
aircraft flight manual (if required)
• Aircraft equipment list
• Required weight and balance data
• Maintenance records
• Applicable airworthiness directives (ADs)

For a detailed explanation of the required pilot maneuvers
and performance standards, refer to the PTSs pertaining to
the type of certification and aircraft selected. These standards
may be downloaded free of charge from the FAA: www.faa.
gov. They can also be purchased from the Superintendent
of Documents or GPO bookstores. Most airport .xed-base
operators and flight schools carry a variety of government
publications and charts, as well as commercially published

Who Administers the FAA Practical Examination?

Due to the varied responsibilities of the FSDOs, practical tests
are usually given by DPEs. An applicant should schedule the
practical test by appointment to avoid conflicts and wasted
time. A list of examiner names can be obtained from the local
FSDO. Since a DPE serves without pay from the government
for conducting practical tests and processing the necessary
reports, the examiner is allowed to charge a reasonable fee.
There is no charge for the practical test when conducted by
an FAA inspector.

Role of the Certificated Flight Instructor

To become a CFI, a pilot must meet the provisions of 14 CFR
part 61. The FAA places full responsibility for student flight
training on the shoulders of the CFI, who is the cornerstone
of aviation safety. It is the job of the flight instructor to train
the student pilot in all the knowledge areas and teach the
skills necessary for the student pilot to operate safely and
competently as a certificated pilot in the NAS. The training
will include airmanship skills, pilot judgment and decision making,
and good operating practices.

A pilot training program depends on the quality of the
ground and flight instruction the student pilot receives. The
flight instructor must possess a thorough understanding of

the learning process, knowledge of the fundamentals of
teaching, and the ability to communicate effectively with the
student pilot. He or she uses a syllabus and teaching style
that embodies the "building block" method of instruction. In
this method, the student progresses from the known to the
unknown via a course of instruction laid out in such a way
that each new maneuver embodies the principles involved
in the performance of maneuvers previously learned. Thus,
with the introduction of each new subject, the student not
only learns a new principle or technique, but also broadens
his or her application of those principles or techniques
previously learned.

Insistence on correct techniques and procedures from the
beginning of training by the flight instructor ensures that
the student pilot develops proper flying habit patterns. Any
deficiencies in the maneuvers or techniques must immediately
be emphasized and corrected. A flight instructor serves as a
role model for the student pilot who observes the flying habits
of his or her flight instructor during flight instruction, as well
as when the instructor conducts other pilot operations. Thus,
the flight instructor becomes a model of flying proficiency
for the student who, consciously or unconsciously, attempts
to imitate the instructor. For this reason, a flight instructor
should observe recognized safety practices, as well as
regulations during all flight operations.

The student pilot who enrolls in a pilot training program
commits considerable time, effort, and expense to achieve a
pilot certificate. Students often judge the effectiveness of the
flight instructor and the success of the pilot training program
based on their ability to pass the requisite FAA practical test.
A competent flight instructor stresses to the student that
practical tests are a sampling of pilot ability compressed
into a short period of time. The goal of a flight instructor is
to train the "total" pilot.

Role of the Designated Pilot Examiner

The DPE plays an important role in the FAA's mission of
promoting aviation safety by administering FAA practical
tests for pilot and Flight Instructor Certificates and associated
ratings. Although administering these tests is a responsibility
of the ASI, the FAA's highest priority is making air travel
safer by inspecting aircraft that .y in the United States. To
satisfy the need for pilot testing and certification services,
the FAA delegates certain of these responsibilities to private
individuals who are not FAA employees.