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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Introduction To Flying
Knowledge and Skill Examinations

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge



Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making




FAA requires all practical tests be conducted in accordance
with the appropriate PTS, and the policies set forth in the
Introduction section of the PTS book, the pilot applicant
should become familiar with this book during training.

The PTS book is a testing document and not intended to be
a training syllabus. An appropriately rated flight instructor
is responsible for training the pilot applicant to acceptable
standards in all subject matter areas, procedures, and
maneuvers. Descriptions of tasks and information on how to
perform maneuvers and procedures are contained in reference
and teaching documents such as this handbook. A list of
reference documents is contained in the Introduction section
of each PTS book. Copies may obtained by:
• Downloading from the FAA website: www.faa.gov.
• Purchase of print copies from the GPO, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, or via their official online bookstore at

The flight proficiency maneuvers listed in 14 CFR part 61
are the standard skill requirements for certification. They
are outlined in the PTS as "areas of operation." These are
phases of the practical test arranged in a logical sequence
within the standard. They begin with preflight preparation
and end with postflight procedures. Each area of operation
contains "tasks," which are comprised of knowledge areas,
flight procedures, and/or flight maneuvers appropriate to the
area of operation. The candidate is required to demonstrate
knowledge and proficiency in all tasks for the original
issuance of all pilot certificates.

When To Take the Practical Exam

14 CFR part 61 establishes the ground school and flight
experience requirements for the type of certification and
aircraft selected. However, the CFI best determines when an
applicant is qualified for the practical test. A practice practical
test is an important step in the flight training process.
The applicant will be asked to present the following
• FAA Form 8710-1 (8710.11 for sport pilot applicants),
Application for an Airman Certificate and/or Rating,
with the flight instructor's recommendation.
• An Airman Knowledge Test Report with a satisfactory
• A medical certificate (not required for glider or
balloon), and a student pilot certificate endorsed by a
flight instructor for solo, solo cross-country (airplane
and rotorcraft), and for the make and model aircraft to be used for the practical test (driver's license or
medical certificate for sport pilot applicants).
• The pilot log book records.
• A graduation certificate from an FAA-approved school
(if applicable).

Examples of Practical Test Standards
Figure 1-27. Examples of Practical Test Standards.