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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Table of Contents

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Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

Preface

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

Chapter 1, Introduction To Flying
Chapter 2, Aircraft Structure
Chapter 3, Principles of Flight
Chapter 4, Aerodynamics of Flight
Chapter 5, Flight Controls
Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems
Chapter 7, Flight Instruments
Chapter 8, Flight Manuals and Other Documents
Chapter 9, Weight and Balance
Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance
Chapter 11, Weather Theory
Chapter 12, Aviation Weather Services
Chapter 13, Airport Operation
Chapter 14, Airspace
Chapter 15, Navigation
Chapter 16, Aeromedical Factors
Chapter 17, Aeronautical Decision Making

Appendix

Glossary

Index

Composite Construction .............................................2-8
History ....................................................................2-8
Composite Materials in Aircraft .............................2-9
Advantages of Composites .....................................2-9
Disadvantages of Composites .................................2-9
Fluid Spills on Composites ...................................2-10
Lightning Strike Protection ...................................2-10
The Future of Composites ....................................2-11
Instrumentation: Moving into the Future ....................2-11
Control Instruments .................................................2-12
Navigation Instruments ...........................................2-12
Global Positioning System (GPS) ................................2-12
Chapter 3
Principles of Flight ..............................................3-1
Introduction ....................................................................3-1
Structure of the Atmosphere ..........................................3-1
Atmospheric Pressure .................................................3-2
Pressure Altitude ........................................................3-2
Density Altitude .........................................................3-3
Effect of Pressure on Density .................................3-3
Effect of Temperature on Density ..........................3-3
Effect of Humidity (Moisture) on Density .............3-3
Theories in the Production of Lift ..................................3-4
Newton's Basic Laws of Motion ................................3-4
Magnus Effect ............................................................3-4
Flow of Air Against a Non rotating Cylinder ..........3-5
A Rotating Cylinder in a Motionless Fluid .............3-5
A Rotating Cylinder in a Moving Fluid ..................3-5
Bernoulli's Principle of Differential Pressure ............3-7
Airfoil Design ................................................................3-7
Low Pressure Above ..................................................3-8
High Pressure Below ..................................................3-9
Pressure Distribution ..................................................3-9
Airfoil Behavior .......................................................3-10
A Third Dimension ......................................................3-10
Chapter Summary ........................................................3-10

Chapter 4
Aerodynamics of Flight .......................................4-1
Forces Acting on the Aircraft ........................................4-1
Thrust .........................................................................4-2
Drag ............................................................................4-3
Parasite Drag ...........................................................4-4
Induced Drag ..........................................................4-5
Lift/Drag Ratio ........................................................4-6
Weight ........................................................................4-7
Lift ..............................................................................4-7
Wing tip Vortices ............................................................4-8
Formation of Vortices ................................................4-8
Avoiding Wake Turbulence .......................................4-8

Ground Effect .................................................................4-9
Axes of an Aircraft .......................................................4-11
Moment and Moment Arm ..........................................4-12
Aircraft Design Characteristics ...................................4-12
Stability ....................................................................4-12
Static Stability .......................................................4-13
Dynamic Stability .................................................4-13
Longitudinal Stability (Pitching) ..........................4-14
Lateral Stability (Rolling) .....................................4-16
Vertical Stability (Yawing) ...................................4-17
Free Directional Oscillations (Dutch Roll) ..............4-18
Spiral Instability .......................................................4-18
Aerodynamic Forces in Flight Maneuvers ...................4-19
Forces in Turns .........................................................4-19
Forces in Climbs .......................................................4-21
Forces in Descents ....................................................4-21
Stalls ............................................................................4-22
Basic Propeller Principles ............................................4-23
Torque and P-Factor .................................................4-26
Torque Reaction .......................................................4-26
Corkscrew Effect ......................................................4-26
Gyroscopic Action ....................................................4-27
Asymmetric Loading (P-Factor) ..............................4-27
Load Factors .................................................................4-28
Load Factors in Aircraft Design ...............................4-28
Load Factors in Steep Turns .....................................4-29
Load Factors and Stalling Speeds ............................4-30
Load Factors and Flight Maneuvers .........................4-31
Vg Diagram ..............................................................4-32
Rate of Turn .............................................................4-33
Radius of Turn ..........................................................4-34
Weight and Balance .....................................................4-35
Effect of Weight on Flight Performance ..................4-37
Effect of Weight on Aircraft Structure .....................4-37
Effect of Weight on Stability and Controllability ....4-38
Effect of Load Distribution ......................................4-38
High Speed Flight ........................................................4-39
Subsonic Versus Supersonic Flow ...........................4-39
Speed Ranges ...........................................................4-40
Mach Number Versus Airspeed ...............................4-41
Boundary Layer ........................................................4-41
Laminar Boundary Layer Flow ............................4-41
Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow ..........................4-41
Boundary Layer Separation ..................................4-41
Shock Waves ............................................................4-42
Sweepback ................................................................4-43
Mach Buffet Boundaries ..........................................4-44
High Speed Flight Controls ......................................4-45
Chapter Summary ........................................................4-46
 

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