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Instrument Flying Handbook
The Air Traffic Control System
Control Sequence

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Aircraft Management Using PRM.
Figure 9-15. Aircraft Management Using PRM. (Note the no
transgression zone (NTZ) and how the aircraft are separated.)

PRM Benefits
Typically, PRM is used with dual approaches with centerlines
separated less than 4,300 feet but not less than 3,000 feel
(under most conditions). [Figure 9-15] Separating the two
final approach courses is a No Transgression Zone (NTZ)
with surveillance of that zone provided by two controllers,
one for each active approach. The system tracking software
provides PRM monitor controllers with aircraft identification,
position, speed, projected position, as well as visual and
aural alerts.

Control Sequence

The IFR system is flexible and accommodating if pilots do
their homework, have as many frequencies as possible written
down before they are needed, and have an alternate in mind
if the flight cannot be completed as planned. Pilots should
familiarize themselves with all the facilities and services
available along the planned route of flight. [Figure 9-16]
Always know where the nearest VFR conditions can be
found, and be prepared to head in that direction it the situation

A typical IFR flight, with departure and arrival at airports
with control towers, would use the ATC facilities and services
in the following sequence:

1. AFSS: Obtain a weather briefing for a departure,
destination and alternate airports, and en route
conditions, and then file a flight plan by calling

2. ATIS: Preflight complete, listen for present conditions
and the approach in use.

3. Clearance Delivery: Prior to taxiing, obtain a departure

4. Ground Control: Noting that the flight is IFR, receive
taxi instructions,

5. Tower: Pre-takeoff checks complete, receive clearance
to takeoff.

6. Departure Control: Once the transponder 'tags up"
with the ARTS, the tower controller instructs the pilot
to contact Departure to establish radar contact.