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Instrument Flying Handbook
The National Airspace System
Airspace Classification

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Instrument Flying
Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Flying
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight
Display

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency
Operations

Vector Airways and Charted IFR Altitudes.
Figure 8-2. Vector Airways and Charted IFR Altitudes.

Jet routes exist only in Class A airspace, from 18,000 feet
MSL to FL 450, and are depicted on high-altitude en route
charts. The letter "J" precedes a number to label the airway
(e.g.. J12),

RNAV routes have been established in both the low-altitude
and the high-altitude structures in recent years and are
depicted on the en route low and high chart series. High
altitude RNAV routes are identified with a "Q" prefix (except
the Q-routes in the Gulf of Mexico) and low altitude RNAV
routes are identified with a "T" prefix. RNAV routes and data
are depicted in aeronautical blue.

In addition to the published routes, a random RNAV route may
be flown under IFR if it is approved by ATC. Random RNAV
routes are direct routes, based on area navigation capability,
between waypoints defined in terms of latitude/longitude
coordinates, degree-distance fixes, or offsets from established
routes/airways at a specified distance and direction.

Radar monitoring by ATC is required on all random
RNAV routes. These routes can only be approved in a radar
environment. Factors that will be considered by ATC in
approving random RNAV routes include the capability to
provide radar monitoring, and compatibility with traffic
volume and flow. ATC will radar monitor each flight;
however, navigation on the random RNAV route is the
responsibility of the pilot.

Other Routing
Preferred IFR routes have been established between
major terminals to guide pilots in planning their routes of
flight, minimizing route changes and aiding in the orderly
management of air traffic on federal airways. Low and high
altitude preferred routes are listed in the Airport/Facility
Directory (A/PD). To use a preferred route, reference the
departure and arrival airports; if a routing exists for your
flight, then airway instructions will he listed.

 
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