| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Instrument Flying Handbook
The National Airspace System
Terminal Arrival Area (TAA)

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

or time specified in the profile view must be observed.
Maximum holding airspeed limitations as set forth for all
holding patterns apply. The holding pattern maneuver is
completed when the aircraft is established on the inbound
course after executing the appropriate entry. If cleared for
the approach prior to returning to the holding fix and the
aircraft is at the prescribed altitude, additional circuits of the
holding pattern is neither necessary nor expected by ATC.
If pilots elect to make additional circuits to lose excessive
altitude or to become better established on course, it is their
responsibility to advise ATC upon receipt of their approach
clearance. When holding in lieu of a procedure turn, the
holding pattern must be followed, except when RADAR
VECTORING to the final approach course is provided or
when NoPT is shown on the approach course

Teardrop Procedure
When a teardrop procedure turn is depicted and a course
reversal is required, unless otherwise authorized by ATC,
this type of procedure must he executed. [Figure 8-15] The
teardrop procedure consists of departure from an IAF on the
published outbound course followed by a turn toward and
intercepting the inbound course at or prior to the intermediate
fix or point. Its purpose is to permit an aircraft to reverse
direction and lose considerable altitude within reasonably
limited airspace. Where no fix is available to mark the
beginning of the intermediate segment, it shall be assumed
to commence at a point 10 NM prior to the FAF, When the
facility is located on the airport, an aircraft is considered to
be on final approach upon completion of the penetration turn.
However, the final approach segment begins on the final
approach course 10 NM from the facility.

Teardrop Procedure.
Figure 8-15. Teardrop Procedure.

The Profile View
The profile view is a depiction of the procedure from the side
and illustrates the vertical approach path altitudes, headings,
distances, and fixes. [Figures 8-10, 8-11, and 8-12] The
view includes the minimum altitude and the maximum
distance for the procedure turn, altitudes over prescribed
fixes, distances between fixes, and the missed approach
procedure. The profile view aids in the pilot's interpretation
of the IAP. The profile view is not drawn to scale.
[Figures 8-10, 8-11, 8-12, and 8-16]

The precision approach glide slope (GS) intercept altitude
is a minimum altitude for GS interception after completion
of the procedure turn, illustrated by an altitude number and
"zigzag" line. It applies to precision approaches, and except
where otherwise prescribed, also applies as a minimum
altitude for crossing the FAF when the GS is inoperative
or not used. Precision approach profiles also depict the GS
angle of descent, threshold-crossing height (TCH), and GS
altitude at the outer marker (OM).

For nonprecision approaches, a final descent is initiated and
the final segment begins at either the FAF or the final approach
point (FAP). The FAF is identified by use of the Maltese cross
symbol in the profile view. [Figure 8-11] When no FAF
is depicted, the final approach point is the point at which the
aircraft is established inbound on the final approach course.
[Figure 8-16]

Step-down fixes in nonprecision procedures are provided
between the FAF and the airport for authorizing a lower
minimum descent altitude (MDA) after passing an
obstruction. Step-down fixes can be identified by NAVAID,
NAVAID fix, waypoint or radar, and are depicted by a hash
marked line. Normally, there is only one step-down fix
between the FAF and the MAP, but there can be several.
If the step-down fix cannot be identified for any reason, the
minimum altitude at the step-down fix becomes the MDA for
the approach. However, circling minimums apply if they are
higher than the step-down fix minimum altitude, and a circling
approach is required.

The visual descent point (VDP) is a defined point on
the final approach course of a nonprecision straight-in
approach procedure. A normal descent from the MDA to
the runway touchdown point may be commenced, provided
visual reference is established. The VDP is identified on
the profile view of the approach chart by the symbol "V."
[Figure 8-12]