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Instrument Flying Handbook
The National Airspace System
Terminal Arrival Area (TAA)

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

In order to accommodate descent from a high en route altitude
to the initial segment altitude, a hold in lieu of a procedure
turn provides the aircraft with an extended distance for the
necessary descent gradient. The holding pattern constructed
for this purpose is always established on the center IAF
waypoint. Other modifications may he required for parallel
runways, or special operational requirements. When
published, the RNAV chart will depict the TAA through
the use of icons representing each TAA associated with the
RNAV procedure. These icons are depicted in the plan view
of the approach, generally arranged on the chart in accordance
with their position relative to the aircraft's arrival from the
en route structure.

Course Reversal Elements in Plan View and
Profile View

Course reversals included in an IAP are depicted in one of
three different ways: a 45°/180° procedure turn, a holding
pattern in lieu of procedure turn, or a teardrop procedure.
The maneuvers are required when it is necessary to reverse
direction to establish the aircraft inbound on an intermediate
or final approach course. Components of the required
procedure are depicted in the plan view and the profile view.
The maneuver must he completed within the distance and
at the minimum altitude specified in the profile view. Pilots
should coordinate with the appropriate ATC facility relating
to course reversal during the IAP.

45° Procedure Turn.
Figure 8-13. 45° Procedure Turn.

Procedure Turns
A procedure turn barbed arrow indicates
the direction or side of the outbound course on which
the procedure turn is made. [Figure 8-13] Headings are

provided for course reversal using the 45° procedure turn.
However, the point at which the turn may be commenced,
and the type and rate of turn is left to the discretion of the
pilot. Some of the options are the 45° procedure turn, the
racetrack pattern, the teardrop procedure turn, or the 80°/260°
course reversal. The absence of the procedure turn barbed
arrow in the plan view indicates that a procedure turn is
not authorized for that procedure. A maximum procedure
turn speed of not greater than 200 knots indicated airspeed
(KIAS) should be observed when turning outbound over the
IAF and throughout the procedure turn maneuver to ensure
staying within the obstruction clearance area. The normal
procedure turn distance is 10 NM. This may be reduced to
a minimum of 5 NM where only Category A or helicopter
aircraft are operated, or increased to as much as 15 NM to
accommodate high performance aircraft. Descent below the
procedure turn altitude begins after the aircraft is established
on the inbound course.

The procedure turn is not required when the symbol "NoPT"
appears, when radar vectoring to the final approach is
provided, when conducting a timed approach, or when the
procedure turn is not authorized. Pilots should contact the
appropriate ATC facility when in doubt if a procedure turn
is required.

Holding in Lieu of Procedure Turn
A holding pattern in lieu of a procedure turn may be specified
for course reversal in some procedures. [Figure 8-14] in such
cases, the holding pattern is established over an intermediate
fix or a final approach fix (FAF). The holding pattern distance

Holding in Lieu of Procedure Turn.
Figure 8-14. Holding in Lieu of Procedure Turn.