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Instrument Flying Handbook
The National Airspace System
Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) Charts

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Terminal Procedures Publications

While the en route charts provide the information necessary
to safely transit broad regions of airspace, the United States
Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP) enables pilots to
guide their aircraft in the airport area. Whether departing or
arriving, these procedures exist to make the controllers' and
pilots' jobs safer and more efficient. Available in booklets
by region (published by NACG), the TPP includes approach
procedures, STARs, Departure Procedures (DPs), and airport

Departure Procedures (DPs)
There are two types of DPs, Obstacle Departure Procedures
(ODP) and SIDs. [Figure 8-8] Both types of DPs provide
obstacle clearance protection to aircraft in instrument
meteorological conditions (IMC), while reducing
communications and departure delays. DPs are published in
text and/or charted graphic form. Regardless of the format, all
DPs provide a way to depart the airport and transition to the
en route structure safely. When possible, pilots are strongly
encouraged to file and fly a DP at night, during marginal
visual meteorological conditions (VMC) and IMC.

All DPs provide obstacle clearance provided the aircraft
crosses the end of the runway at least 35 feet AGL; climbs
to 400 feet above airport elevation before turning; and climbs
at least 200 feet per nautical mile (FPNM), unless a higher
climb gradient is specified to the assigned altitude. ATC. may
vector an aircraft off a previously assigned DP; however, the
200 FPNM or the FPNM specified in the DP is required.

Textual ODPs are listed by city and airport in the IFR
Take-Off Minimums and DPs Section of the TPP. SIDs are
depicted in the TPP following the approach procedures for
the airport.

Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs)
STARs depict prescribed routes to transition the instrument
pilot from the en route structure to a fix in the terminal area
from which an instrument approach can be conducted. If a
pilot does not have the appropriate STAR. write "No STAR"
in the flight plan. However, if the controller is busy, the pilot
might he cleared along the same route and, if necessary,
the controller will have the pilot copy the entire text of the

STARs are listed alphabetically at the beginning of the
NACG booklet. Figure 8-9 shows an example of a STAR, and
the legend for STARs and DPs printed in NACG booklets.

Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) Charts

The IAP chart provides the method to descend and land safely
in low visibility conditions. The FAA establishes an IAP
after thorough analyses of obstructions, terrain features, and
navigational facilities. Maneuvers, including altitude changes.
course corrections. and other limitations, are prescribed in the
IAP. The approach charts reflect the criteria associated with
the United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Approach
Procedures (TERPS), which prescribes standardized methods
for use in designing instrument flight procedures.

In addition to the NACG. other governmental and corporate
entities produce approach procedures. The United States
military IAPs are established and published by the
Department of Defense and are available to the public
upon request. Special IAPs are approved by the FAA for
individual operators and are not available to the general
public. Foreign country standard IAPs are established and
published according to the individual country's publication
procedures. The information presented in the following
sections will highlight features of the United States Terminal
Procedures Publications.

The instrument approach chart is divided into six main
sections. which include the margin identification. pilot
briefing (and notes), plan view, profile view, landing
minimums, and airport diagram. [Figure 8-10] An
examination of each section follows.

Margin Identification
The margin identification, at the top and bottom of the chart,
depicts the airport location and procedure identification.
The civil approach plates are organized by city, then airport
name and state. For example. Orlando Executive in Orlando,
Florida is alphabetically listed under "O" for Orlando.
Military approaches are organized by airport name first.

The chart's amendment status appears below the city and state
in the bottom margin. The amendment number is followed
by the five-digit julian-date of the last chart change."05300"
is read, "the 300th day of 2005". At the center of the top
margin is the FAA chart reference number and the approving
authority. At the bottom center, the airport's latitude and
longitude coordinates are provided.