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Instrument Flying Handbook
The National Airspace System
New Technologies

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Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

Moving Map Display.
Figure 8-6. Moving Map Display.

New Technologies

Technological advances have made multifunction displays
and moving maps more common in newer aircraft. Even older
aircraft are being retrofitted to include "glass" in the flight
deck. [Figure 8-6] Moving maps improve pilot situational
awareness by providing a picture of aircraft location in
relation to NAVAIDS, waypoints, airspace, terrain, and
hazardous weather. GPS systems can be certified for terminal
area and en route use as well as approach guidance.

Additional breakthroughs in display technology are the new
electronic chart systems or electronic flight bags that facilitate
the use of electronic documents in the general aviation
flight deck. [Figure 8-7] An electronic chart or flight bag
is a self-powered electronic library that stores and displays
en route charts and other essential documents on a screen.
These electronic devices can store the digitized United States
terminal procedures, en route charts, the complete airport
facility directory, in addition to Title 14 of the Code of Federal
Regulations (14 CFR) and the AIM. Full touch-screen based
computers allow pilots to view airport approach and area
charts electronically while flying. It replaces paper charts as
well as other paper materials including minimum equipment
lists (MELs), standard operating procedures (SOPs), standard
instrument departures (SIDs), standard terminal arrival
routes (STARs), checklists, and flight deck manuals. As with
paper flight publications, the electronic database needs to be
current to provide accurate information regarding NAVAIDS,
waypoints, and terminal procedures. Databases are updated
every 28 days and are available from various commercial
vendors. Pilots should be familiar with equipment operation,
capabilities, and limitations prior to use.


Example of an Electronic Flight Log.
Figure 8-7. Example of an Electronic Flight Log.