| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Instrument Flying Handbook
Navigation Systems
Advanced Technologies

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Instrument Flying


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Factors
Chapter 2. Aerodynamic Factors
Chapter 3. Flight Instruments
Chapter 4. Section I
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 4. Section II
Airplane Attitude Instrument
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 5. Section I
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using Analog Instrumentation
Chapter 5. Section II
Airplane Basic
Flight Maneuvers
Using an Electronic Flight

Chapter 6. Helicopter
Attitude Instrument Flying

Chapter 7. Navigation Systems
Chapter 8. The National
Airspace System

Chapter 9. The Air Traffic
Control System

Chapter 10. IFR Flight
Chapter 11. Emergency

31. WAAS Satellite Representation.
Figure 7-31. WAAS Satellite Representation.

Instrument Approach Capabilities
WAAS receiver's support. all basic GPS approach functions
and will provide additional capabilities with the key benefit
to generate an electronic glide path, independent of ground
equipment or barometric aiding. This eliminates several
problems such as cold temperature effects, incorrect altimeter
setting or lack of a local altimeter source, and allows approach
procedures to be built without the cost of installing ground
stations at each airport. A new class of approach procedures
which provide vertical guidance requirements for precision
approaches has been developed to support satellite navigation
use for aviation applications! These new procedures called
Approach with Vertical Guidance (APV) include approaches
such as the LNAV/VNAV procedures presently being flown
with barometric vertical navigation.

Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS)
LAAS is a ground-based augmentation system, which uses
a GPS reference facility located on or in the vicinity of
the airport being serviced. This facility has a reference
receiver that measures GPS satellite pseudo-range and
timing and retransmits the signal. Aircraft landing at
LAAS-equipped airports are able to conduct approaches to
Category I level and above for properly equipped aircraft.
[Figures 7-32 and 7-33]

Inertial Navigation System (INS)
Inertial Navigation System (INS) is a system that navigates
precisely without any input from outside of the aircraft. it is
fully self-contained. The INS is initialized by the pilot, who
enters into the system the exact location of the aircraft on the
ground before the flight. The INS is also programmed with
WPs along the desired route of flight.


LAAS Representation.
Figure 7-32 LAAS Representation.